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Table 5 Multivariable association of exposures of interest with coverage of IRS and/or an ITN in Namibia in 2013, accounting for clustering and adjusting for covariates (n = 9597)

From: A cross-sectional analysis of ITN and IRS coverage in Namibia in 2013

Exposure of interest Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Risk ratio (95% CI) p-value Risk ratio (95% CI) p-value Risk ratio (95% CI) p-value
Residence type
 Urban 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Rural 2.56 (2.37–2.77) < 0.001 1.46 (1.33–1.63) < 0.001 1.62 (1.45–1.81) < 0.001
Wealth quintile
 Lowest 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Second 0.80 (0.72–0.88) < 0.001 1.05 (0.95–1.16) 0.370 1.12 (1.01–1.24) 0.032
 Middle 0.69 (0.62–0.76) < 0.001 1.09 (0.97–1.21) 0.139 1.22 (1.10–1.37) < 0.001
 Fourth 0.51 (0.46–0.57) < 0.001 1.05 (0.93–1.18) 0.474 1.29 (1.14–1.46) < 0.001
 Highest 0.33 (0.29–0.38) < 0.001 0.99 (0.86–1.15) 0.929 1.36 (1.16–1.60) < 0.001
Regional PfPR2–10 (%)
 < 1 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 1 to < 5 6.27 (5.41–7.28) < 0.001 5.72 (2.94–11.11) < 0.001 5.05 (2.59–9.85) < 0.001
 > 5 6.88 (6.03–7.85) < 0.001 6.96 (4.28–11.31) < 0.001 6.10 (3.74–9.97) < 0.001
  1. Model 1, univariable association between exposures of interest and IRS and/or ITN coverage; Model 2, adjusted for regional and enumeration area clustering; Model 3, additionally adjusted for all other exposures of interest in the table; PfPR2–10, Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate in those aged 2–10 years; ITN, insecticide-treated net; IRS, indoor residual spraying