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Table 1 For various P. falciparum prevalence settings in the Greater Mekong Subregion, estimates of the time between artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) introduction and the setting being classified by the WHO as having confirmed partial resistance

From: Implications of population-level immunity for the emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria: a mathematical model

Country Year ACT introduced (estimated uncertainty)a P. falciparum prevalence in year ACT introduced (95% confidence interval)b Year when classified as area of confirmed partial resistance Observed time to confirmed partial resistance (estimated uncertainty)a Average number of ACTs administered per person per yearc
Vietnam 1995 (1994–1996) [32, 33] 4% (3–5%) [29] 2009 [34] 14 years (13–15 years) 0.192
Thailand 1994 (1993–1995) [30, 32, 35] 7% (5–9%) [29] 2008 [34] 14 years (13–15 years) 0.031
Cambodia 2000 1999–2001) [30, 36] 6% (5–7%) [29] 2006 [34] 6 years (5–7 years) 0.996
Myanmar 2002 (2001–2003) [37]d 9% (8–10%) [29] 2008 [34] 6 years (5–7 years) 0.681
Lao PDR 2002 (2001–2003) [37]d 20% (17–22%) [29] 2013 [34] 11 years (10–12 years) 1.588
  1. Lao PDR Lao People’s Democratic Republic
  2. a The precise year that ACT was introduced at scale is unclear, and so a ±1 year margin was used to capture this uncertainty
  3. b Prevalence was estimated by calculating the average of the results of all studies from the Malaria Atlas Project in the relevant years, with 95% confidence intervals estimated as two standard errors of the mean. Details are provided in Additional file 1: Table S4
  4. c Calculated from World Malaria Reports (treatment numbers) and UN Population Division data (population sizes). Details in Additional file 1: Table S3
  5. d The year the World Health Organization recommended the use of ACT in these settings