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Table 3 Multinomial logistic regression results showing odds of willingness to contribute time or money only or both time and money relative to non-willingness to contribute by individuals’ sense of community, environmental, malaria-related and sociodemographic characteristics

From: Sense of community and willingness to support malaria intervention programme in urban poor Accra, Ghana

Categorical variable Model 1 (pseudo R2 = 0.031; N = 766; χ2 = 45.53; prob > χ2 = 0.0000) Model 2 (pseudo R2 = 0.071; N = 746; χ2 = 102.53; prob > χ2 = 0.0000)
Money or time only Both money and time Money or time only Both money and time
RRR (SE) (95% CI) RRR (SE) (95% CI) RRR (SE) (95% CI) RRR (SE) (95% CI)
Sense of community variables
Duration of residence in community
 Non-migrant ref         
 Recent migrant (5 years or less) 2.117 (0.936)^ (0.889, 5.037) 2.193 (0.955)^ (0.934, 5.149) 2.424 (1.209)^ (0.912, 6.444) 2.843 (1.401)* (1.082, 7.471)
 Longer-staying migrant (over 5 years) 2.277 (0.716)** (1.229, 4.218) 2.058 (0.640)* (1.119, 3.787) 2.941 (1.095)** (1.418, 6.100) 2.938 (1.080)** (1.429, 6.040)
Perception of community cohesion 0.889 (0.037)** (0.819, 0.965) 0.899 (0.037)** (0.829, 0.974) 0.836 (0.039)*** (0.761, 0.916) 0.857 (0.040)** (0.783, 0.938)
Willingness to request help score 1.156 (0.038)*** (1.084, 1.232) 1.105 (0.035)** (1.038, 1.177) 1.181 (0.042)*** (1.102, 1.266) 1.121 (0.039)** (1.047, 1.200)
Altruism score 1.015 (0.038) (0.956, 1.077) 1.045 (0.031) (0.986, 1.108) 1.011 (0.033) (0.948, 1.079) 1.035 (0.033) (0.971, 1.102)
Environmental characteristics
Distance from open drain
 Less than  10 m ref         
 10–50 m      0.436 (0.132)** (0.241, 0.790) 0.470 (0.139)* (0.262, 0.840)
 Over 50 m      1.507 (0.670) (0.630, 3.602) 0.997 (0.444) (0.416, 2.388)
Locality of residence
 Agbogbloshie ref         
 James Town      2.673 (1.370)^ (0.979, 7.299) 3.703 (1.923)* (1.338, 10.247)
 Ussher Town      1.515 (0.733) (0.587, 3.910) 3.305 (1.614)* (1.269, 8.605)
Malaria-related characteristics
Perceived prevalence of malaria
 Increasing ref         
 Decreasing      0.875 (0.324) (0.424, 1.806) 0.592 (0.214) (0.292, 1.204)
 Remained same      0.505 (0.211) (0.223, 1.144) 0.421 (0.171)* (0.190, 0.933)
Personal knowledge of malaria death
 Yes      1.952 (1.003) (0.713, 5.346) 2.529 (1.277)^ (0.940, 6.806)
 No ref         
Sociodemographic characteristics
Gender
 Male ref         
 Female      1.165 (0.319) (0.682, 1.992) 1.104 (0.297) (0.651, 1.870)
Age      0.995 (0.014) (0.969, 1.023) 0.998 (0.014) (0.972, 1.025)
Monthly income      1.001 (0.001) (0.999, 1.002) 1.001 (0.001) (0.999, 1.002)
Educational attainment
 None/primary ref         
 JHS/middle      0.613 (0.221) (0.303, 1.242) 0.691 (0.247) (0.343, 1.394)
 SHS/higher      0.717 (0.284) (0.330, 1.560) 0.806 (0.316) (0.374, 1.738)
Ethnicity         
 Ga ref         
 Akan      1.329 (0.515) (0.621, 2.842) 1.329 (0.515) (0.621, 2.842)
 Others      0.923 (0.359) (0.430, 1.978) 0.923 (0.359) (0.430, 1.978)
Constant 3.518 (2.739) (0.765, 16.178) 3.488 (2.684) (0.772, 15.761) 8.013 (10.097) (0.678, 94.701) 4.866 (6.075) (0.421, 56.201)
  1. RRR relative risk ratios, SE standard error
  2. ^ p < 0.10, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001