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Table 3 Results of the multilevel multinomial regression of consistent use of bed nets on selected sociodemographic, ideational, household and community variables, Nigeria, 2015

From: Factors associated with caregivers’ consistency of use of bed nets in Nigeria: a multilevel multinomial analysis of survey data

Predictor Using every night vs. using rarely/never Using most or some nights vs. using rarely/never
Relative risk ratio 95% confidence interval Relative risk ratio 95% confidence interval
Sociodemographic and media exposure variables
 Age in years 0.971*** 0.957, 0.986 0.987 0.973, 1.002
 Female gender (RC = male) 1.810*** 1.385, 2.367 1.488** 1.156, 1.916
 Education (RC = none)
  Primary 0.740 0.520, 1.054 0.690* 0.460, 0.972
  Secondary and higher 0.670* 0.471, 0.953 0.638** 0.453, 0.898
 Regularly listened to the radio (RC = no) 0.878 0.669, 1.153 0.873 0.671, 1.135
 Regularly watched the television (RC = no) 0.562*** 0.416, 0.759 0.757 0.569, 1.006
 Religion (RC = christian)
  Muslim 0.442*** 0.274, 0.711 0.741 0.473, 1.160
  Others 0.290* 0.095, 0.886 0.541 0.182, 1.609
 Exposed to malaria prevention message on the media in last 12 months (RC = not exposed) 1.665*** 1.279, 2.168 1.939*** 1.509, 2.492
Ideational characteristics
 Perceived severity of malaria (RC = did not perceive) 0.675** 0.529, 0.862 0.888 0.706, 1.117
 Perceived susceptibility to malaria (RC = did not perceive) 0.936 0.748, 1.171 1.009 0.815, 1.249
 Knew that malaria is caused by mosquito bite (RC = did not know) 1.342 0.950, 1.896 1.652** 1.182, 2.309
 Reported perceived self-efficacy to prevent malaria (RC = did not report) 1.283 0.971, 1.695 1.048 0.807, 1.360
 Reported perceived self-efficacy to detect severe malaria (RC = did not report) 1.040 0.792, 1.366 1.050 0.811, 1.360
 Reported perceived response-efficacy of bed nets (RC = did not report) 1.468*** 1.163, 1.854 0.897 0.719, 1.119
 Reported perceived self-efficacy to use nets (RC = did not report) 1.802*** 1.397, 2.324 1.340* 1.052, 1.706
 Discussed malaria with others (RC = did not discuss) 1.450* 1.047,2.009 2.477*** 1.775, 3.458
 Discussed nets with others (RC = did not discuss) 1.382* 1.069, 1.787 1.283* 1.003, 1.640
 Higher score for positive attitudes towards net use (RC = lower score) 1.547*** 1.230, 1.944 1.551*** 1.245, 1.929
 Perceived net use to be the norm in the community (RC = did not perceive) 2.079*** 1.657, 2.609 1.999*** 1.608, 2.483
 Knew where to buy nets in community 2.514*** 1.841, 3.434 2.080*** 1.528, 2.831
 Willing to pay for nets (RC = not willing to pay) 1.655*** 1.299, 2.109 1.824*** 1.443, 2.307
Household/community variables
 Household size 0.862*** 0.822, 0.904 0.904*** 0.863, 0.946
 Number of nets in household 1.867*** 1.656, 2.104 1.491*** 1.327, 1.675
 Urban residence (RC = rural) 0.854 0.590, 1.237 0.772 0.539, 1.105
 State of residence (RC = Akwa Ibom)
  Kebbi 17.328*** 7.924, 37.893 4.107*** 1.934, 8.721
  Nasarawa 3.215*** 1.861, 5.553 4.010*** 2.379, 6.760
 Household wealth quintile (RC = lowest)
  Second 0.767 0.484, 1.213 0.707 0.441, 1.132
  Middle 0.591* 0.362, 0.964 0.720 0.439, 1.180
  Fourth 0.545* 0.324, 0.918 0.832 0.495, 1.401
  Highest 0.600 0.343, 1.049 0.979 0.563, 1.702
 Community advantage index (RC = low)
  Medium 1.225 0.720, 2.084 0.944 0.563, 1.582
  High 1.513 0.788, 2.905 1.444 0.770, 2.708
Random effects
 Cluster random effects/(SE)a 0.542*** (0.128) 0.480*** (0.121)
  1. RC reference category
  2. p < 0.1; * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001
  3. aSignificance of community-level random effects is assessed using log-likelihood ratio tests (comparing models with and without random effects) with one-sided p-values because the null value is on the border of the parameter space