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Table 1 Baseline characteristics for patients admitted for severe malaria

From: Identifying risk factors for the development of sepsis during adult severe malaria

  Characteristic Category N % Artesunate arm Quinine arm Sepsis development
n (%) n (%) n (%)
1 Country Myanmar 458 38.6 233 50.9 225 49.1 17 3.7
Bangladesh 399 33.6 198 49.6 201 50.4 21 5.3
India 137 11.4 67 48.9 70 51.1 11 8.0
Indonesia 193 16.3 97 50.3 96 49.7 37 19.2
2 Sex Male 899 75.7 456 50.7 443 49.3 48 5.3
Female 288 24.3 139 48.3 149 51.7 38 13.2
3 Age 17–25 504 43.6 249 49.4 255 50.6 33 6.6
26–35 321 22.2 167 52.0 154 48.0 26 8.1
36–45 188 13.0 96 51.1 92 48.9 18 9.6
46–87 174 12.1 83 47.7 91 52.3 9 5.2
4 Respiratory distress Yes 117 9.9 51 43.6 66 56.4 20 17.1
No 1070 90.1 544 50.8 526 49.2 66 6.2
5 Coma on admission Yes 505 42.5 255 50.5 250 49.5 46 9.1
No 682 57.5 340 49.9 342 50.2 40 5.9
6 Hypoglycaemia on admission (blood glucose < 2.2 mmol/l) Yes 19 1.7 8 42.1 11 57.9 1 5.3
No 1127 98.3 568 50.4 559 49.6 85 7.5
7 Shock on admission Yes 137 11.5 65 47.5 72 52.6 21 15.3
No 1050 88.5 530 50.5 520 49.5 65 6.2
8 Jaundice on admission Yes 624 52.6 319 51.1 305 48.9 57 9.1
No 563 47.4 276 49.0 287 51.0 29 5.2
9 Severe anaemia on admission (Hb < 5.0 g/dl) Yes 60 5.0 31 51.7 29 48.3 11 18.3
No 1127 95.0 564 50.0 563 50.0 75 6.7
10 Acute kidney injury (BUN > 20 mg/dl) Yes 277 24.6 130 46.9 147 53.1 37 13.4
No 850 75.4 440 51.8 410 48.2 45 5.3
11 Acidosis on admission (base excess < 3.3 mmol/l) Yes 524 48.7 254 48.5 270 51.5 59 11.3
No 551 51.3 289 52.5 262 47.5 23 4.2
12 Hyperparasitaemia on admission (> 10% RBCs infected) Yes 185 15.6 99 53.5 86 46.5 26 14.1
No 1002 84.4 496 49.5 506 50.5 60 6.0
  1. Hb haemoglobin, BUN blood urea nitrogen, RBC red blood cells, mmol/l millimoles per litre, g/dl grams per decilitre, mg/dl milligrams per decilitre