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Table 1 Socio-demographic and housing characteristics of cases and controls in villages around Lake Tana, Ethiopia, October 2016–June 2017

From: Travel to farms in the lowlands and inadequate malaria information significantly predict malaria in villages around Lake Tana, northwest Ethiopia: a matched case–control study

Characteristic Malaria cases (n = 303) n, % (95% CI) Controls (n = 303) n, % (95% CI) Total n, % (95% CI) Pearson’s X2/Fisher’s exact test**
Age (years)g 18 (4.42–30) 20 (3–33) 19 (4–30) 0.188
 < 15 119, 39.3 (33.9–44.9) 119, 39.3 (33.9–44.9) 238, 39.3 (35.5–43.2)
 15–29 108, 35.6 (30.4–41.2) 90, 29.7 (24.8–35.1) 198, 32.6 (29.0–36.5)
 30–44 42, 13.8 (10.4–18.3) 62, 20.5 (16.3–25.4) 104, 17.2 (14.4–20.4)
 45–64 30, 9.9 (7.0–13.8) 30, 9.9 (7.0–13.8) 60, 9.9 (7.8–12.6)
 ≥ 65 4, 1.3 (0.5–3.5) 2, 0.6 (0.2–2.6) 6, 1.0 (0.4–2.2)
Religiona 0.105
 Orthodox Christian 299, 98.7 (96.5–99.5) 293, 96.7 (94.0–98.2) 592, 97.7 (96.1–98.6)
 Muslim 4, 1.3 (0.5–3.5) 10, 3.3 (1.8–6.0) 14, 2.3 (1.4–3.9)
Marital statusa 0.068
 Married 235, 77.6 (72.5–81.9) 257, 84.8 (80.3–88.5) 492, 81.2 (77.9–84.1)
 Single 48, 15.8 (12.1–20.4) 34, 11.2 (8.1–15.3) 82, 13.5 (11.0–16.5)
 Divorced/widowed 20, 6.6 (4.3–10.0) 12, 4.0 (2.3–6.9) 32, 5.3 (3.8–7.4)
Educational statusa 0.175
 Illiteratef 140, 46.2 (40.6–51.9) 162, 53.5 (47.8–59.0) 302, 49.8 (45.9–53.8)
 Able to read and write (informal) 63, 20.8 (16.6–25.8) 55, 18.2 (14.2–22.9) 118, 19.5 (16.5–22.8)
 Grade 1–12 completed 93, 30.7 (25.7–36.1) 75, 24.7 (20.2–29.9) 168, 27.7 (24.3–31.4)
 > 12 7, 2.3 (1.1–4.8) 11, 3.6 (2.0–6.5) 18, 3.0 (1.9–4.7)
Occupationa 0.435
 Government employee 6, 2.0 (0.9–4.4) 10, 3.3 (1.8–6.0) 16, 2.6 (1.6–4.3)
 Merchant/trader 10, 3.3 (1.8–6.0) 9, 3.0 (1.5–5.6) 19, 3.1 (2.0–4.9)
 Farmer/peasant 251, 82.8 (78.1–86.7) 258, 85.2 (80.7–88.7) 509, 84.0 (80.8–86.7)
 Daily labourer 7, 2.3 (1.1–4.8) 8, 2.6 (1.3–5.2) 15, 2.5 (1.5–4.1)
 Othersb 29, 9.6 (6.7–13.5) 18, 5.9 (3.8–9.2) 47, 7.8 (5.9–10.2)
HH wealth index 0.275
 Poor 89, 29.4 (24.5–34.8) 106, 35.0 (29.8–40.6) 195, 32.2 (28.6–36.0)
 Medium 20, 6.6 (4.3–10.0) 15, 5.0 (3.0–8.1) 35, 5.8 (4.2–7.9)
 Rich 194, 64.0 (58.4–69.3) 182, 60.0 (54.4–65.5) 376, 62.0 (58.1–65.8)
HH sizeg 6 (4–7) 6 (4–7) 6 (4–7) 0.568
 ≤ 5 individuals 133, 43.9 (38.4–49.6) 140, 46.2 (40.6–51.9) 273, 45.0 (41.1–49.0)
 > 5 individuals 170, 56.1 (50.4–61.6) 163, 53.8 (48.1–59.4) 333, 55.0 (51.0–58.9)
Roofing materials 0.145
 Corrugated iron 287, 94.7 (91.5–96.7) 278, 91.8 (88.1–94.4) 565, 93.2 (90.9–95.0)
 Thatch 16, 5.3 (3.3–8.5) 25, 8.2 (5.6–11.9) 41, 6.8 (5.0–9.1)
Open eaves in the roof 0.546
 Yes 37, 12.2 (8.9–16.4) 42, 13.9 (10.4–18.3) 79, 13.0 (10.6–15.9)
 No 266, 87.8 (83.6–91.0) 261, 86.1 (81.7–89.6) 527, 87.0 (84.0–89.4)
Wall building materials 0.896
 Cement 5, 1.6 (0.7–3.9) 3, 1.0 (0.3–3.0) 8, 1.3 (0.7–2.6)
 Mud 296, 97.7 (95.2–98.9) 298, 98.3 (96.1–99.3) 594, 98.0 (96.5–98.9)
 Othersc 2, 0.7 (0.2–2.6) 2, 0.7 (0.2–2.6) 4, 0.7 (0.2–1.7)
Flooring materials 0.262
 Cement and ceramics 9, 3.0 (1.5–5.6) 4, 1.3 (0.5–3.5) 13, 2.2 (1.2–3.7)
 Dung plastered 294, 97.0 (94.4–98.5) 299, 98.7 (96.5–99.5) 593, 97.8 (96.3–98.8)
Windows of the house 0.464
 Corrugated iron 55, 18.2 (14.2–23.0) 52, 17.2 (13.3–21.9) 107, 17.7 (14.8–20.9)
 No windows 182, 60.1 (54.4–65.5) 197, 65.0 (59.4–70.2) 379, 62.5 (58.6–66.3)
 Open windows/open wall 58, 19.1 (15.1–24.0) 50, 16.5 (12.7–21.1) 108, 17.8 (15.0–21.1)
 Othersd 8, 2.6 (1.3–5.2) 4, 1.3 (0.5–3.5) 12, 2.0 (1.1–3.5)
Number of rooms in the houseg 3 (2–3) 3 (2–3) 3 (2–3) 0.549
 ≤ 2 rooms 100, 33.0 (27.9–38.5) 107, 35.3 (30.1–40.9) 207, 34.2 (30.5–38.0)
 > 2 rooms 203, 67.0 (61.5–72.1) 196, 64.7 (59.1–69.9) 399, 65.8 (62.0–69.5)
Tethering of cattle, goats and sheepe 0.701
 Yes 73, 24.1 (19.6–29.3) 69, 22.8 (18.4–27.9) 142, 23.4 (20.2–27.0)
 No 230, 75.9 (70.7–80.4) 234, 77.2 (72.1–81.6) 464, 76.6 (73.0–79.8)
Separate kitchen 0.614
 Yes 116, 38.3 (32.9–43.9) 110, 36.3 (31.1–41.9) 226, 37.3 (33.5–41.2)
 No 187, 61.7 (56.1–67.1) 193, 63.7 (58.1–68.9) 380, 62.7 (58.8–66.5)
  1. CI confidence interval
  2. ** p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant
  3. aFor cases and controls < 18 years; religion, marital status, educational status and occupation of the household head was taken
  4. bStudent, job seeker, street dweller, weaver, local musician, sewer, carter
  5. cCement and sand-made bricks, ink painted, ordered stones
  6. dWooden, glass sealed
  7. eTethering indoors at night in the month prior to visiting the health facility
  8. fUnable to read and write based on self-reporting
  9. gContinuous variables; summarized through median and IQR