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Table 2 Travel history and other behaviours among cases and controls in villages around Lake Tana, Ethiopia, October 2016–June 2017

From: Travel to farms in the lowlands and inadequate malaria information significantly predict malaria in villages around Lake Tana, northwest Ethiopia: a matched case–control study

Characteristic Malaria cases (n = 303) n, % (95% CI) Controls (n = 303) n, % (95% CI) Total n, % (95% CI) Pearson’s X2/Fisher’s exact test**
Travel to malarious lowlandsa < 0.0001
 Yes 59, 19.5 (15.4–24.3) 24, 7.9 (5.4–11.6) 83, 13.7 (11.2–16.7)
 No 244, 80.5 (75.7–84.6) 279, 92.1 (88.4–94.6) 523, 86.3 (83.3–88.8)
Frequency of travel to malarious lowlands (n = 83) 0.714
 One time 53, 89.8 (78.7–95.5) 21, 87.5 (65.5–96.3) 74, 89.2 (80.2–94.3)
 Two or three times 6, 10.2 (4.5–21.3) 3, 12.5 (3.7–34.5) 9, 10.8 (5.7–19.8)
Regular LLIN use during travels (n = 83) 1.000
 Yes 3, 5.1 (1.6–15.1) 1, 4.2 (0.5–27.3) 4, 4.8 (1.8–12.4)
 No 56, 94.9 (84.9–98.4) 23, 95.8 (72.7–99.5) 79, 95.2 (87.6–98.2)
Reason for travel (n = 83) 1.000
 To work temporarily/job seeking 53, 89.8 (78.7–95.5) 22, 91.7 (69.8–98.1) 75, 90.4 (81.7–95.2)
 Othersb 6, 10.2 (4.5–21.3) 2, 8.3 (1.9–30.2) 8, 9.6 (4.8–18.3)
Travel history within the study areaa 0.037
 Yes 95, 31.4 (26.4–36.8) 72, 23.8 (19.3–28.9) 167, 27.6 (24.1–31.3)
 No 208, 68.6 (63.2–73.6) 231,76.2 (71.1–80.7) 439, 72.4 (68.7–75.9)
Regular LLIN use during travels (n = 167) 0.398
 Yes 9, 9.5 (4.9–17.4) 4, 5.6 (2.1–14.2) 13, 7.8 (4.5–13.0)
 No 86, 90.5 (82.6–95.1) 68, 94.4 (85.8–97.9) 154, 92.2 (87.0–95.5)
HH member travel to malarious lowlandsa 0.001
 Yes 29, 9.6 (6.7–13.5) 9, 3.0 (1.5–5.6) 38, 6.3 (4.6–8.5)
 No 274, 90.4 (86.5–93.3) 294, 97.0 (94.4–98.5) 568, 93.7 (91.5–95.4)
Reason for travel (n = 38) 0.574
 To work temporarily/job seeking 26, 89.7 (70.9–96.9) 7, 77.8 (33.0–96.1) 33, 86.8 (71.1–94.6)
 Othersb 3, 10.3 (3.1–29.1) 2, 22.2 (3.9–67.0) 5, 13.2 (5.4–28.9)
Visiting traditional healersc 0.412
 Yes 55, 18.2 (14.2–22.9) 63, 20.8 (16.6–25.8) 118, 19.5 (16.5–22.8)
 No 248, 81.8 (77.1–85.8) 240, 79.2 (74.2–83.4) 488, 80.5 (77.2–83.5)
  1. ** p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The italics indicate statistically significant p-values
  2. aIn the month prior to visiting the health centre
  3. bFor holy water, spiritual festivity, spiritual education, commercial issues, visiting friends and relatives, labour (playing music in resource rich areas of low lands)
  4. cSpiritual healing, herbal remedy