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Table 3 Malaria intervention measures among cases and controls in villages around Lake Tana, Ethiopia, October 2016–June 2017

From: Travel to farms in the lowlands and inadequate malaria information significantly predict malaria in villages around Lake Tana, northwest Ethiopia: a matched case–control study

Characteristic Malaria cases (n = 303) n, % (95% CI) Controls (n = 303) n, % (95% CI) Total n, % (95% CI) Pearson’s X2/Fisher’s exact test**
House proximity to health centre (km)b 3.5 (0.7–4.9) 3.8 (1.2–5.5) 3.6 (0.9–5.3) 0.065
 ≤ 5 233, 76.9 (71.8–81.3) 213, 70.3 (64.9–75.2) 446, 73.6 (69.9–77.0)
 > 5 70, 23.1 (18.7–28.2) 90, 29.7 (24.8–35.1) 160, 26.4 (23.0–30.1)
Received health information on malaria 0.011
 Yes 123, 40.6 (35.2–46.3) 93, 30.7 (25.7–36.1) 216, 35.6 (31.9–39.6)
 No 180, 59.4 (53.7–64.8) 210, 69.3 (63.9–74.3) 390, 64.4 (60.4–68.1)
LLIN ownership 0.186
 None 203, 67.0 (61.5–72.1) 218, 71.9 (66.6–76.7) 421, 69.5 (65.7–73.0)
 1 LLIN/household 52, 17.2 (13.3–21.9) 56, 18.5 (14.5–23.3) 108, 17.8 (15.0–21.1)
 ≥2 LLINs/household 48, 15.8 (12.1–20.4) 29, 9.6 (6.7–13.5) 77, 12.7 (10.3–15.6)
Slept under LLIN regularly in last 1 month (n = 185)# 0.085
 Yes 38, 38.0 (28.9–48.0) 43, 50.6 (39.9–61.2) 81, 43.8 (36.7–51.1)
 No 62, 62.0 (52.0–71.1) 42, 49.4 (38.8–60.1) 104, 56.2 (48.9–63.3)
LLIN(s) had holes/tear(s) (n = 185) 0.603
 Yes 39, 39.0 (29.8–49.0) 30, 35.3 (25.7–46.2) 69, 37.3 (30.6–44.6)
 No 61, 61.0 (51.0–70.2) 55, 64.7 (53.8–74.3) 116, 62.7 (55.4–69.4)
Period since the HH obtained LLIN(s) (n = 185) (year) 0.723
 < 1 11, 11.0 (6.1–18.9) 8, 9.4 (4.7–17.9) 19, 10.3 (6.6–15.6)
 ≥ 1 89, 89.0 (81.1–93.9) 77, 90.6 (82.1–95.3) 166, 89.7 (84.4–93.4)
Proper hanging of LLIN(s) (n = 185) 0.747
 Yes 72, 72.0 (62.3–80.0) 63, 74.1 (63.6–82.5) 135, 73.0 (66.1–78.9)
 No 28, 28.0 (20.0–37.7) 22, 25.9 (17.5–36.4) 50, 27.0 (21.1–33.9)
Is/are the LLIN(s) in good condition? (n = 185)a 0.488
 Yes 49, 49.0 (39.2–58.9) 46, 54.1 (43.3–64.6) 95, 51.4 (44.1–58.5)
 No 51, 51.0 (41.1–60.8) 39, 45.9 (35.4–56.7) 90, 48.6 (41.5–55.9)
IRS 0.926
 Yes 225, 74.3 (69.0–78.9) 226, 74.6 (69.4–79.2) 451, 74.4 (70.8–77.8)
 No 78, 25.7 (21.1–31.0) 77, 25.4 (20.8–30.6) 155, 25.6 (22.3–29.2)
Plastering/painting after IRS (n = 451) 0.351
 Yes 27, 12.0 (8.3–17.0) 21, 9.3 (6.1–13.9) 48, 10.6 (8.1–13.9)
 No 198, 88.0 (83.0–91.7) 205, 90.7 (86.1–93.9) 403, 89.4 (86.1–91.9)
  1. **p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The italics indicate statistically significant p-values
  2. aMeasured by service years of LLIN (aged if > 3 years), presence of tears/holes and proper hanging
  3. bContinuous variables; summarized through median and IQR