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Table 1 Studies related to Plasmodium vivax in vitro culture development

From: Plasmodium vivax in vitro continuous culture: the spoke in the wheel

Date Parasite source Reticulocyte source Type of culture Culture period [days or cycles (when explicitly stated)] Contribution Refs
1912 Infected patients Human erythrocytes Short-term 8 The first attempt to culture P. vivax. Defibrinated or citrated human blood seemed to be the most favourable culture medium [53]
1913 Infected patients Human erythrocytes Short-term 8 This showed that P. vivax could be grown at 39 °C [54]
1947 Infected patients Human erythrocytes Short-term 8 Tissue cultures were made from the fatty layer and from the buffy coat after it had been clotted with chick embryo extract [86]
1979 Vietnam Palo Alto strain from Aotus monkeys and infected patients Monkey red blood cell fraction Short-term 8 First culture of P. vivax derived from on-going infection in Aotus monkeys [57]
1981 Infected patient Human RBC Long-term 43 The first report of maintaining P. vivax for 20 cycles [8]
1984 Infected patients Human erythrocytes Short-term 4 Magnesium chloride was important as culture supplement [59]
1985 Infected patients (43 isolates) Human RBC Short-term 6 Three different culture media were used: better results were obtained with SCMI 612 than RPMI 1640 and/or Waymouth [58]
1987 Belem strain from Saimiri monkeys enriched with Percoll (54%) Reticulocyte-enriched human peripheral blood with Percoll (65%) Invasion assay Not provided P. vivax Mrz invasion depends on Fy6 presence [70]
1988 Infected patients. 8 isolates enriched with Nycodenz (58–60%) UCB, bone marrow and human peripheral blood from haemolytic anaemia patients Short-term 4 The parasite was concentrated during ring and trophozoite stages to improve invasion rate [60]
1988 Palo Alto strain from Aotus nancymaae Monkey blood after artificially induced anaemia Invasion assay 5 cycles Parasites were grown in continuous shaking conditions to increase Mrz contact with target cells [61]
1989 Belem strain from monkeys enriched with Percoll (54%) Reticulocyte-enriched human peripheral blood and monkey blood with Percoll (65%) Invasion assay Not provided Confirmed the role of the Duffy blood group antigen as a ligand for P. vivax Mrz [62]
1991 Infected patients Human erythrocytes Short-term 15 Good growth in the presence of liver extract [63]
1991 Infected patients Human erythrocytes Short-term 4 Parasite density doubled after 96 h [64]
1992 Chesson strain in Saimiri monkeys Reticulocyte-enriched human and monkey blood by Percoll/Renografin-60 Short-term 22 The flow-vessel system was the best method available at the time [56]
1997 Chesson strain in Aotus nancymaae and A. lemurinus griseimembra Reticulocyte-enriched haemochromatosis blood by homologous plasma differential centrifugation or Percoll (60%) Short-term 15 This study described the differential centrifugation as an effective method for host cell enrichment. Blood from haemochromatosis patients may be invaded easily by P. vivax [7]
2000 Infected patients Human cord Long-term 52 Parasite re-invasion was maintained for 7 to 8 days [87]
2001 Infected patients suffering acute infection None Short-term 12 The P. vivax culture was maintained without adding fresh reticulocytes to the medium [65]
2007 Infected patients (15 isolates) UCB and patients with haemochromatosis Long-term 40 Cultures supplemented with haemochromatosis patients’ reticulocytes were maintained for a longer time than those supplemented with UCB [12]
2007 Infected patients. 7 isolates enriched with Percoll (60%) Culturing HSC-derived reticulocytes enriched with Percoll (50-60%) Long-term 85 Parasites could invade nucleated cells and erythroblasts which are mostly found in bone marrow [10]
2011 Infected patients [schizonts enriched with Percoll (45%)] Reticulocytes enriched from UCB with Percoll (70%) Invasion assay 2 cycles A new protocol for culturing P. vivax in laboratories located in endemic countries was developed [11]
2012 Acute infection and cryopreserved isolates Reticulocytes enriched from UCB with Percoll (70%) Short-term 10 It was shown that cryopreserved samples (parasites and reticulocytes) could be used for invasion and initiate short-term culture [18]
2012 Infected patients. Isolates cryopreserved for 3 years Culturing HSC-derived reticulocytes (cryopreserved for 1 year) Invasion assay Not provided HSC-derived reticulocytes could guarantee a more homogenous and standardized reticulocyte population [9]
2012 Infected patients The same infected patients Short-term 3 Wild isolates were preserved in wet ice for 9–10 days [13]
2013 Infected patients Culturing HSC-derived CD34+ from bone marrow or human peripheral blood Short-term Not provided It was shown that CD34 + hHSC from peripheral blood and bone marrow could be expanded and differentiated to reticulocytes using a novel stromal cell. It was suggested that the absence of fetal haemoglobin could improve P. vivax invasion [66]
2014 AMRU-I strain in Aotus nancymaae Culturing HSC-derived CD34+ from UCB (these were cryopreserved after 8 days culture) Short-term 4 A substantial amount (up to 0.8% of the cells) of newly invaded reticulocytes was obtained 24 h after initial culture [17]
2015 Infected patients (30 isolates) HSC culture, reticulocyte enriched peripheral blood [with Nycodenz (19%)] and SCU Long-term 780 The only study to date which has managed to maintain the culture for a prolonged time (26 months), with 0.01%. parasitaemia. Reticulocytes obtained from adults’ peripheral blood and enriched on Nycodenz seemed to improve parasite maturation conditions, as well as gametocytes obtained in four of the cultured isolates. Nycodenz had no notable toxic effects on cells and was thus appropriate for enriching them and favoured parasite invasion during long-term P. vivax infection [14]
2015 Infected patients (15 isolates) UCB Short-term Not provided McCoy’s 5A medium supplemented with l-glutamine, HEPES buffer, NaHCO3, hypoxanthine, 0.5% Albumax II (a new compound) and gentamicin was useful for culturing P. vivax [67]
2016 Sal-1strain in Aotus lemurinus Haemochromatosis patients or buffy packs enriched with modified differential centrifugation, Percoll (70%) or CD71+ coupled immunomagnetic bead-based purification method Short-term 14 Reticulocytes enriched by differential centrifugation in homologous plasma (20%) were more apt to be invaded by P. vivax parasites. GlutaMAX did indeed improve parasite viability, growth and development compared to traditional l-glutamine [15]
2017 Infected patients (cryopreserved isolates) Saimiri boliviensis and human blood Long-term 233 Parasites could re-invade monkey and human erythrocytes. Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) was effective for P. vivax culture [69]