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Table 2 Potential risk or protective covariates collected from remote sensing and GIS-based sources

From: Detecting local risk factors for residual malaria in northern Ghana using Bayesian model averaging

Variable Source/satellite Details
Distance to health facility GIS-derived Euclidean distance from active health facility at time of survey (based on survey location)
Distance to main roads GIS-derived [81] Euclidean distance from major roads
Distance to urban centers GIS-derived Euclidean distance from center with population ≥ 5000 individuals
Distance to water bodies GIS-derived [82] Euclidean distance from rivers and standing water bodies
Elevation CGIAR SRTM [83] Meters above sea level
Land surface temperature—daya NASA (Terra) MOD13A3 (Aqua) MYD13A3 [84] Average monthly daytime temperature (in degrees Celsius) 30 days prior to a survey
Land surface temperature—night NASA (Terra) MOD13A3 and (Aqua) MYD13A3 [84] Average monthly nighttime temperature (in degrees Celsius) 30 days prior to a survey
Normalized difference vegetative indexa NASA (Terra) MOD13A3 and (Aqua) MYD13A3 [85] The maximum monthly index 30 days prior to a survey
Population density WorldPop [86] Population density per 100 m grid, log-transformed
Population density (≤ 5 y.o.)a WorldPop [86] Population under 5 years of age density per 100 m grid, log-transformed
Rainfall (historical)a WorldClim [87] Average of the cumulative sum of precipitation from 3 to 1 month prior to the survey date from past 50 years
Rainfall (current)a FEWSNET [88] Average of the cumulative sum of precipitation from 3 to 1 month prior to survey
Slope GIS-derived (from elevation)  
  1. aRemoved from models due to high correlations (R2 ≥ 0.49) with one or more other variables