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Table 3 Multilevel Analysis of factors associated with ITN use among nonpregnant women with children under 5 years

From: Factors associated with insecticide-treated net usage among women of childbearing age in Malawi: a multilevel analysis

Variable Null model Model I aOR (95% CI) Model II aOR (95% CI) Model III aOR (95% CI)
Individual-level factors
 Age (years)
  15–24   1.00   1.00
  25–34   0.95 (0.83–1.08)   0.95 (0.84–1.09)
  ≥ 35   0.87 (0.75–1.02)   0.88 (0.75–1.02)
 Education
  No education   1.00   1.00
  Primary education   1.12 (0.97–1.29)   1.03 (0.90–1.17)
  Secondary+   1.44*** (01.20–1.73)   1.04 (0.92–1.76)
 Occupation
  Unemployed   1.00   1.00
  Employed   0.95 (0.85–1.04)   0.94 (0.85–1.05)
 Religion
  Muslim and others   1.00   1.00
  Catholic   0.98 (0.81–1.17)   0.93 (0.78–1.12)
  Protestant   0.94 (0.80–1.10)   0.90 (0.77–1.06)
 Wealth
  Poor   1.00   1.00
  Middle   1.13* (1.00–1.28)   1.13* (1.01–1.28)
  Rich   1.04 (0.92–1.17)   1.06 (0.93–1.20)
 Region     
  Northern   1.00   1.00
  Central   1.53*** (1.28–1.83)   1.46*** (1.19–1.78)
  Southern   1.49*** (1.25–1.77)   1.40*** (1.16–1.70)
 Residence
  Rural   1.00   1.00
  Urban   1.42* (1.19–1.69)   1.48** (1.18–1.84)
 Altitude (m)     
  < 1600   1.00   1.00
  ≥ 1600   0.69 (0.29–1.69)   0.63 (0.25–1.52)
 Parity
  Primigravida   1.00   1.00
  Secundigravida   5.11*** (2.69–9.69)   4.97*** (2.62–9.43)
  Multigravida   4.67*** (2.47–8.83)   4.55*** (2.40–8.61)
 Number of children under 5 years in HH
  One   1.00   1.00
  ≥ 2   1.12* (1.01–1.23)   1.12* (1.01–1.24)
 Number of HH members
  ≥ 5   1.00   1.00
  < 5   1.85*** (1.65–2.07)   1.85*** (1.65–2.08)
 Number of ITNs in HH
  < 2   1.00   1.00
  ≥ 2   7.22*** (6.52–7.99)   6.89*** (6.19–7.65)
 IRS
  No   1.00   1.00
  Yes   1.09 (0.89–1.33)   1.06 (0.86–1.31)
 Media exposure
  No   1.00   1.00
  Yes   1.07 (0.97–1.77)   1.06 (0.96–1.17)
 Distance to HF
  Problem   1.00   1.00
  No problem   0.98 (0.89–1.08)   0.98 (0.88–1.09)
 Women’s autonomy in HC decisions
  Self   1.00   1.00
  Husband alone   1.03 (0.91–1.18)   1.02 (0.90–1.17)
  With others   0.06 (0.94–1.20)   1.04 (0.92–1.18)
 Health behaviour
  Poor   1.00   1.00
  Moderate   1.00 (0.85–1.15)   1.00 (0.87–1.16)
  Good   1.19* (1.01–1.39)   1.19* (1.01–1.39)
Community-level factors
 Community employment
  Low    1.00 1.00
  Middle    1.09 (0.96–1.25) 1.08 (0.92–1.25)
  High    1.01 (0.87–1.16) 0.97 (0.82–1.14)
 Community education
  Low    1.00 1.00
  Middle    1.04 (0.90–1.19) 0.96 (0.82–1.12)
  High    0.95 (0.81–1.11) 0.94 (0.78–1.14)
 Community wealth
  Low    1.00 1.00
  Middle    1.00 (0.87–1.15) 0.99 (0.85–1.16)
  High    1.05 (0.88–1.25) 0.81 (0.64–1.01)
 Community distance HF
  Low    1.00 1.00
  Middle    0.89 (0.77–1.04) 0.92 (0.77–1.09)
  High    0.90 (0.77–1.06) 0.97 (0.79–1.17)
 Community ITN coverage
  Low    1.00 1.00
  Middle    1.67*** (1.46–1.93) 1.19* (1.02–1.38)
  High    3.05*** (2.64–3.52) 1.35*** (1.14–1.60)
 Community women’s autonomy in HC decisions
  Low    1.00 1.00
  Middle    1.08 (0.94–1.23) 1.01 (0.86–1.17)
  High    1.27* (1.11–1.45) 1.18* (1.00–1.38)
 Community IRS coverage
  Low    1.00 1.00
  High    1.05 (0.94–1.23) 1.03 (0.89–1.19)
 Measure of variation
  Area variance (95% CI) 0.535 (0.449–0.637) 0.403 (0.325–0.498) 0.297 (0.237–0.372) 0.380 (0.305–0.473)
  ICC (%) 13.9 10.9 8.3 10.4
  MOR 2.01 1.83 1.68 1.80
  PCV (%) Ref. 24.7 44.5 29.0
 Model fit statistic
  AIC 14,990.2 13,012.8 14,753.5 13,017.2
  1. Null model contains no explanatory variables; Model I includes individual-level factors only; Model II includes community-level factors only; Model III include both individual-level and community-level factors
  2. ITN insecticide treated nets, HF health facility, HH household, IRS indoor residual spraying, HC health care, ICC intraclass correlation coefficient, MOR median odds ratio, PVC proportional change in variance, AIC Akaike’s information criterion
  3. p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001