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Table 3 Time taken in hours to seek treatment and deterioration of clinical status, by symptoms: children treated with RA versus children not treated with RA

From: Household costs and time to treatment for children with severe febrile illness in rural Burkina Faso: the role of rectal artesunate

Category CNS + other symptomsa No CNS but prostrated with other symptomsa Total
RA No RA RA No RA RA No RA
N % or mean (SD) N % or mean (SD) N % or mean (SD) N % or mean (SD) N % or mean (SD) N % or mean (SD)
“Modern” providerb
 Yes 30 100% 13c 54% 69 100% 20 42% 99 100% 33c 46%
 No 11 46% 28 58% 39 54%
From onset of illness to 1st “modern” provider: Was the child treated within 24 h?
 Yes 26 87% 9 69% 59 86% 14 70% 85 86% 23 70%
 No 4 13% 4 31% 10 14% 6 30% 14 14% 10 30%
 Mean time (h)d, e 30 9.0 (9.9) 9 16.1 (16.5) 69 12.2 (12.0)* 14 20.1 (18.3) 99 11.2 (11.5)* 23 18.5 (17.3)
Deterioration: CNS on arrivalf 4/30 13% 2/11 18% 4/99 4% 2/31 6%
From onset of illness to health centre: mean time (h) to reach a health centreg 30 14.5 (10.7) 7 17.2 (17.7) 68 15.2 (12.0) 14 20.1 (18.3)h 98 15.0 (11.5) 21 19.1 (17.7)
From danger signs to health centrei : mean time (h) to reach a health centrej, k 22 10.4 (10.3) 7 12.0 (18.7) 54 11.3 (11.5) 12 14.8 (18.6) 76 11.1 (11.1)k 19 13.7 (18.2)
  1. RA rectal artesunate, CNS central nervous system (convulsions; altered consciousness/coma), SD standard deviation, h hours
  2. * RA vs. no RA: p < 0.05
  3. aRepeated vomiting ± too weak to take oral medication/“lethargy”
  4. b“Modern” defined to include community health workers, drug shops, dispensaries, health centres, and hospitals for RA children and drug shops, dispensaries, and health centres for non-RA children. Traditional or informal care providers were excluded
  5. cCNS: 11 children went to a health centre, 1 to a drug shop and 1 to a dispensary/CSPS; Total: 31 children went to a health centre, 1 to a drug shop and 1 to a dispensary/CSPS
  6. dCNS: missing for 4 children with no RA; No CNS: missing for 6 children with no RA; Total: missing for 10 children with no RA
  7. eMean time from onset of illness to 1st provider (home stock, traditional healer, drug hawkers) for children who did not go to a “modern” provider: CNS and no RA: N = 8, Mean = 2.0, SD = 3.1, missing for 3 children; No CNS and no RA: N = 17, Mean = 12.3, SD = 11.5, missing for 10 children, 1 child did not go to any provider; Total and no RA: N = 25, Mean = 9.0, SD = 10.7, missing for 13 children, 1 child did not go to any provider
  8. fSymptoms after baseline, documented at health centre
  9. gCNS: missing for 4 children with no RA; No CNS: missing for 1 child with RA and 6 children with no RA; Total: missing for 1 child with RA and 10 children with no RA
  10. hSame as the mean time from onset of illness to 1st “modern” provider because the health centre was the only “modern” provider visited
  11. iAny danger signs (coma/altered consciousness, convulsions, repeated vomiting, lethargy) for the CNS and total groups
  12. jCNS: missing for 8 children with RA, 4 children with no RA; No CNS: missing for 15 children with RA, 8 children with no RA; Total: missing for 23 children with RA, 12 children with no RA
  13. kMean referral time (h) from RA to the health centre: Total—RA: 3.2 h