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Table 3 Bivariate analysis results showing individual and household-level factors associated with Plasmodium infection among the study participants, Jimma, south-western Ethiopia

From: Detection of foci of residual malaria transmission through reactive case detection in Ethiopia

Variables Examined by PCR, n (%) Positive, n (%) p-value COR (95% CI)
Age (years)
 < 5 117 (19.40) 11 (9.40) 0.336 1.46 (0.68–3.14)
 5–15 185 (30.68) 23 (12.43) 0.032 1.99 (1.06–3.74)*
 > 15 301 (49.92) 20 (6.64) Ref
Sex
 Male 270 (44.78) 24 (8.89) Ref
 Female 333 (55.22) 30 (9.01) 0.959 1.01 (0.58–1.78)
Malaria in the preceding 1 year
 Yes 72 (11.94) 16 (22.22) 0.001 3.71 (1.94–7.07)*
 No 531 (88.06) 38 (7.16) Ref
Fever at the time of survey
 Yes 14 (2.32) 5 (35.71) 0.002 6.12 (1.97–18.98)*
 No 589 (97.68) 49 (8.32) Ref  
ITN usage the preceding night
 Yes 243 (40.30) 18 (7.41) Ref
 No 360 (59.70) 36 (10.00) 0.276 1.39 (0.77–2.51)
Roof structure
 Iron sheet 398 (66.00) 32 (8.04) Ref  
 Thatched 205 (34.00) 22 (10.73) 0.274 1.38 (0.78–2.43)
Visible hole on house wall
 No 418 (69.32) 36 (8.61) Ref  
 Yes 185 (30.68) 18 (9.73) 0.658 1.14 (0.63–2.07)
Presence of window
 No 210 (34.83) 16 (7.62) Ref
 Yes 393 (65.17) 38 (9.67) 0.402 1.30 (0.71–2.39)
Eave gap
 Absent 450 (74.63) 37 (8.22) Ref
 Present 153 (25.37) 17 (11.11) 0.281 1.40 (0.76–2.56)
Area of residence
 Doyo Yaya 375 (62.19) 49 (13.07) 0.001 6.70 (2.63–17.08)*
 Others** 228 (37.81) 5 (2.19) Ref
Spray status of the structure
 Not sprayed 372 (61.69) 49 (13.17) 0.001 6.86 (2.69–17.48)*
 Sprayed 231 (38.31) 5 (2.16) Ref  
Animals sleeping in the house
 No 291 (48.26) 25 (8.59) Ref  
 Yes 312 (51.74) 29 (9.29) 0.762 1.09 (0.62–1.91)
Individual residing in
 Index house 120 (19.90) 21 (17.50) 0.001 2.89 (1.60–5.21)*
 Neighbour 483 (80.10) 33 (6.83) Ref  
Plasmodium species of the index house
 P. vivax 197 (32.67) 9 (4.57) Ref  
 P. falciparum 406 (67.33) 45 (11.08) 0.011 2.60 (1.25–5.44)*
Family size
 Less than five 279 (46.27) 11 (3.94) Ref  
 Five or more 324 (53.73) 43 (13.27) 0.001 3.73 (1.88–7.38)*
Access to ITN
 Sufficient 217 (35.99) 11 (5.07) Ref  
 Not sufficient 386 (64.01) 43 (11.14) 0.015 2.35 (1.18–4.65)*
  1. COR crude odds ratio, ref reference
  2. * Significant at p < 0.05, ** includes all the remaining catchment kebeles of the selected health centres