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Table 1 Main clinical characteristics for cases of post-malaria neurological syndrome following P. falciparum (A), P. vivax (B) and mixed (C) infections

From: Post-malaria neurological syndrome: four cases, review of the literature and clarification of the nosological framework

  N Age Gender Cerebral malaria Severe malaria Treatment of malaria Symptom-free period (days) Fever Confusion Seizures Psychosis Cerebellar involvement Motor deficit
A—PMNS post P. falciparum
 Case 1 1 33 M No Yes AD/AP 10 Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
 Case 2 1 29 M No No AP/Q/AD 13 Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
 Case 3 1 36 F No No AP 15 Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
 Case 4 1 43 F No Yes Q/MF 15 No No No No Yes No
 Nguyen [4] 22 29a 15 M Yes 13 No 9 Yes 21 No 1 Q46% MF77% O18% AD59% 1–60 (median 4) Yes 9 No 13 Yes 15 No 7 Yes 8 No 14 Yes 6 No 16 Yes 1 No 21 Yes 0 No 22
 O’Brien [6] 1 42 M Yes Yes Q/D 45 No Yes No No No No
 Zambito [7] 1 60 M Yes Yes Q/D 11 No Yes No No Yes Yes
 Mizuno [8] 1 54 M Yes Yes AD/MF 21 Yes Yes No No No No
 Nayak [9] 1 23 M Yes Yes AD/O 7 No No No No No Yes
 Prendki [10] 1 19 M Yes Yes Q 46 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
 Prendki [10] 1 19 M Yes Yes Q 7 Yes Yes Yes No No No
 Falchook [11] 1 50 F No Yes Q/D/AP 11 No Yes No Yes Yes No
 Matias [12] 1 61 M No Yes Q/D 2 Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
 Markley [13] 1 42 M Yes Yes MF/Q/D/AP 19 No Yes No No Yes No
 Forestier [14] 1 50 M No No AP 21 No Yes No No No No
 Rakoto [15] 1 16 M Yes No Q/AD/O 13 No Yes Yes No Yes No
 Pace [16] 1 48 F No No AD/O 2 No No No No No Yes
 Caetano [17] 1 60 M No No NA NA No Yes Yes NA Yes No
 Mohsen [18] 1 30 F No Yes Q/D 35 No Yes Yes No No No
 Schnorf [19] 1 34 F Yes Yes Q/O 17 Yes No Yes No Yes No
Schnorf [19] 1 61 M Yes Yes Q/MF 10 Yes No No No Yes No
 Agrawal [20] 1 12 F Yes Yes Q/D 16 No Yes Yes No No No
 Rachita [21] 1 4 F No No Q 7 Yes No No No No Yes
 Lawn [22] 1 44 M No Yes Q/AF 7 Yes Yes No No No No
 Lawn [22] 1 22 F No Yes Q/AF 3 Yes Yes No No Yes No
Total 46   30 M 24 38 Q28, MF21, AD19, AF14, D7, O2   21 33 16 12 13 6
% [95% CI]    65.2 [50.7–77.3] 52.2 [38.1–65.9] 82.6 [69.3–90.9] Q 60, MF 46, AD 41, AF 30, D 18, O 8   45.6 [32.1–59.8] 71.7 [57.4–82.7] 34.8 [22.7–49.2] 26.1 [15.6–40.3] 28.3 [17.3–42.6] 13.0 [6.1–25.7]
Mean (SD)   33.3 (12.7)      15.4b (12.0)       
Median (min–max)   29 (4–61)      13b (2–46)       
B—PMNS post P. vivax
 Goyal [23] 1 1.5 F Yes Yes AD/Q 7 Yes Yes No No No Yes
 Sidhu [24] 1 8 F Yes Yes AD 7 No No No No No No
 Kochar [25] 1 55 M No No CQ 14 No No No No No Yes
 Kasundra [26] 1 14 F No NA NA 14 No No No No Yes Yes
C—PMNS post mixed infections (P. falciparum/P. vivax)
 Koibichi [27] 1 24 M No Yes Q 26 Yes Yes No No No No
 Mani [28] 1 Adult F NA NA D/AD NA No No No No No Yes
  1. M male, F female, D days, NA not available, Q quinin, AD artemisinin derivatives, MF mefloquine, AF anti-folic, O other, SD standard deviation, [95% CI] 95% confidence interval
  2. aMean on 22 patients
  3. bCalculated on 23 available figured data