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Table 2 Number and per cent distribution of socio-demographic characteristics and malaria-risk factors of index and secondary cases detected during the FTAT, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

From: Malaria case investigation with reactive focal testing and treatment: operational feasibility and lessons learned from low and moderate transmission areas in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

  Low transmission, low importation Low transmission, high importation High transmission, low importation
Index cases Secondary cases Index cases Secondary cases Index cases Secondary cases
P. falciparum or mixed
(n = 18)
n (%)
P. falciparum, P. vivax or mixed
(n = 7)
n (%)
P. falciparum or mixed
(n = 141)
n (%)
P. falciparum, P. vivax or mixed
(n = 15)
n (%)
P. falciparum or mixed
(n = 61)
n (%)
P. falciparum, P. vivax or mixed
(n = 105)
n (%)
Gender
 Female 6 (33.3) 4 (57.1) 5 (3.6) 3 (20.0)** 16 (26.2) 40 (38.1)
 Male 12 (66.7) 3 (42.9) 136 (96.4) 12 (80.0) 45 (73.8) 65 (61.9)
Age (years)
 < 5 1 (5.6) 1 (14.3) 0 (0) 3 (20.0)** 1 (1.6) 10 (9.5)**
 5–9 1 (5.6) 2 (28.6) 1 (0.7) 1 (6.7) 5 (8.2) 27 (25.7)
 10–19 6 (33.3) 1 (14.3) 13 (9.2) 1 (6.7) 26 (42.6) 35 (33.3)
 20–39 7 (38.9) 2 (28.6) 111 (78.7) 9 (60.0) 17 (27.9) 31 (29.5)
 40–59 1 (5.6) 1 (14.3) 16 (11.4) 1 (6.7) 10 (16.4) 2 (1.9)
 ≥ 60 2 (11.1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (3.3) 0 (0)
Occupation
 None 2 (11.1) 1 (14.3) 0 (0) 0 (0)** 10 (16.4) 15 (14.3)**
 Child < 10 years old 2 (11.1) 3 (42.7) 1 (0.7) 4 (26.7) 6 (9.3) 37 (35.2)
 Farmer 11 (61.1) 3 (42.7) 132 (93.6) 11 (73.3) 32 (52.5) 27 (25.7)
 Other 3 (16.7) 0 (0) 8 (5.7) 0 (0) 13 (21.3) 26 (24.8)
Education
 None 11 (61.1) 3 (42.7) 95 (67.4) 8 (53.3)** 39 (63.9) 31 (29.5)**
 Child < 10 years old 2 (11.1) 3 (42.7) 1 (0.7) 0 (0) 6 (8.8) 37 (35.2)
 Primary School 5 (27.8) 0 (0) 33 (27.0) 3 (20.0) 13 (21.3) 36 (34.3)
 Secondary or higher 0 (0) 1 (14.3) 7 (5.0) 4 (26.7) 3 (4.9) 1 (1.0)
Slept under a bed net past night
 No 5 (27.8) 3 (42.9) 86 (61.0) 5 (33.3)* 9 (14.8) 20 (19.1)
 Yes 13 (72.2) 4 (57.1) 55 (39.0) 10 (66.7) 52 (85.3) 85 (80.9)
Travel history in past 30 days
 No 16 (88.9) 7 (100.0) 15 (10.6) 12 (80.0)** 61 (100.0) 105 (100.0)
 Yes 2 (11.1) 0 (0) 126 (89.4) 3 (20.0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
HH received IRS in past 12 months
 No 13 (72.2) 5 (71.4) 22 (15.6) 6 (40.0)* 61 (100.0) 105 (100.0)
 Yes 5 (27.8) 2 (28.6) 119 (84.4) 9 (60.0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Received anti-malarial treatment in past 2 weeks
 No 6 (85.7) 15 (100.0) 104 (99.1)
 Yes 1 (14.3) 0 (0) 1 (0.9)
Measured fever at time of diagnosis
 No 15 (83.3) 7 (100.0) 76 (53.9) 15 (100.0)** 35 (57.4) 97 (92.4)**
 Yes 3 (16.7) 0 (0) 65 (46.1) 0 (0) 26 (42.6) 8 (7.6)
Travel history in past 30 days
 No 16 (88.9) 7 (100.0) 139 (98.6) 7 (46.7)** 61 (100.0) 105 (100.0)
 Yes 2 (11.1) 0 (0) 2 (1.4) 8 (53.3) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  1. –, not ascertained at the time of diagnosis; HH, household; IRS, indoor residual spraying
  2. * Significant Chi square P value between 0.01 and < 0.05 comparing demographic characteristics and malaria risk factors between index P. falciparum or mixed cases and secondary P. falciparum, P. vivax or mixed cases, within a transmission pattern. For categorical variables with multiple categories, the Chi square P value refers to the overall comparison across all categories.
  3. ** Significant Chi square P value < 0.01 comparing demographic characteristics and malaria risk factors between index P. falciparum or mixed cases and secondary P. falciparum, P. vivax or mixed cases, within a transmission pattern. For categorical variables with multiple categories, the Chi square P value refers to the overall comparison across all categories.