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Table 2 Summary of malaria diagnostic procedures and treatment prescribed at participating health facilities and community health worker (CHW) sites, as recorded by the health worker during or immediately after consultation

From: Measuring malaria diagnosis and treatment coverage in population-based surveys: a recall validation study in Mali among caregivers of febrile children under 5 years

  All cases (received ACT) All controls (no ACT) Pooled data for cases and controls
All sites combined Public Urban Public Rural CHW Private Urban
n % n % n % n % n % n % n %
Diagnostic method (N = 1601)
 No diagnostic method used 5 0.6 19 2.3 24 1.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 24 7.1
 Clinical signs/symptoms only 334 42.4 449 55.2 783 48.9 69 16.4 306 73.0 142 33.4 266 79.2
 Rapid diagnostic test 299 38.0 208 25.6 507 31.7 101 24.0 112 26.7 283 66.6 11 3.3
 Microscopy 149 18.9 138 17.0 287 17.9 251 59.6 1 0.2 0 0.0 35 10.4
Temperature measured (N = 1602)
 No 44 5.6 48 5.9 92 5.7 37 8.8 18 4.3 20 4.7 17 5.1
 Yes 744 94.4 766 94.1 1510 94.3 384 91.2 402 95.7 405 95.3 319 94.9
Diagnostic test result (N = 1602)
 Negative for malaria 80 10.2 135 16.6 215 13.4 88 20.9 14 3.3 101 23.8 12 3.6
 Positive for malaria 365 46.3 208 25.6 573 35.8 264 62.7 99 23.6 179 42.1 31 9.2
 Not tested 333 42.3 464 57.0 797 49.8 69 16.4 303 72.1 135 31.8 290 86.3
 Invalid 8 1.0 4 0.5 12 0.7 0 0.0 3 0.7 9 2.1 0 0.0
 Don’t know 2 0.3 3 0.4 5 0.3 0 0.0 1 0.2 1 0.2 3 0.9
Health worker final diagnosis (N = 1559)
 Not malaria 56 7.1 326 40.2 382 23.9 74 17.6 24 5.7 136 32.2 148 44.0
 Malaria 731 98.9 486 59.9 1217 76.1 347 82.4 396 94.3 286 67.8 188 56.0
Treatment provideda (N = 1602)
 ACT 788 100 0 0 788 49.2 231 54.9 205 48.8 212 49.9 140 41.7
 Non-ACT anti-malarialb 262 33.3 472 58.1 734 45.8 184 43.7 374 89.0 111 26.1 65 19.4
 ACT + non-ACT anti-malarial 262 33.3 0 0 262 16.4 41 9.7 176 41.9 27 6.4 18 5.4
 Antipyretics 653 82.9 641 78.8 1294 80.8 322 76.5 414 98.6 387 91.1 171 50.9
 Antibiotics 499 63.3 531 65.3 1030 64.3 323 76.7 366 87.1 147 34.6 194 57.7
 Other drugsc 278 35.3 323 39.7 601 37.5 151 35.9 251 59.8 78 18.4 121 36.0
 No drugs 0 0 1 0.1 1 0.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.3
Where caregiver intends to collect drugs (N = 1593)
 The facility/CHW 454 58.0 513 63.3 967 60.7 145 34.4 418 99.5 396 94.7 8 2.4
 Another location 253 32.3 128 15.8 381 23.9 257 61.0 1 0.2 16 3.8 107 32.0
 Depends on patient preference 68 8.7 161 19.9 229 14.4 15 3.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 214 64.1
 Don’t know 8 1.0 8 1.0 16 1.0 4 1.0 1 0.2 6 1.4 5 1.5
  1. ACT artemisinin-based combination therapy, CHW community health worker
  2. aMore than one drug may have been prescribed, numbers do not sum to 100%
  3. bIncludes artemether, artesunate, amodiaquine, quinine
  4. cIncludes antiemetic, antifungal, antihistamine, anthelmintic, bronchodilator/mucolytic, intravenous infusion, multivitamin, steroid, zinc/oral rehydration salts