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Table 2 Studies quantifying human-vector interaction

From: Measuring and characterizing night time human behaviour as it relates to residual malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of the published literature

Author (year) [reference] Country Human behaviour methods Human behavioural information collected Entomological methods Timing of entomology and human behaviour data collection Human exposure to malaria vectors
Killeen et al. (2006) [20] Tanzania Survey Usual bed time and wake-up time Indoor and outdoor HLC, 6:00 p.m.–6:00 a.m. Mosquito collections: 1997 and 2004
Survey: 2002–2004
Indoor exposure for non-user: 90%
Indoor exposure during sleeping hours (9:00 p.m.–5:00 a.m.): 80%
Protective efficacy of an ITN: 70%
Geissbuhler et al. (2007) [21] Tanzania Survey and direct observation Survey: Dinner location, location after dinner, usual bed time and wake-up time, use of prevention measures
Direct observation: People outdoors for each hour of the night
Indoor and outdoor HLC, 6:00 p.m.–7:00 a.m. Mosquito collections: April-June 2006
Survey: Carried out in same households; exact timing not specified
Indoor exposure for non-user (An. gambiae s.l.): 79%
Indoor exposure during sleeping hours for non-user (An. gambiae s.l.): 74%
Protective efficacy of an ITN (An. gambiae s.s.): 59%
Protective efficacy of an ITN (An. arabiensis): 38%
Russell et al. (2011) [22] Tanzania Survey Usual bed time
Usual wake-up time
Indoor and outdoor HLC, 7:00 p.m.–7:00 a.m. Mosquito collections: 1997, 2004, and 2009
Survey: 2002–2004
Indoor exposure for non-user (1997 An. gambiae s.l.): 92%
Indoor exposure for non-user (2004 An. gambiae s.l.): 99%
Indoor exposure for non-user: (2009 An. gambiae s.l.): 79%
Indoor exposure for non-user (1997 An. funestus): 93%
Indoor exposure for non-user (2004 An. funestus): 73%
Indoor exposure for non-user (2009 An. funestus): 45%
Seyoum et al. (2012) [23] Zambia Survey Usual time indoors for the night, bed time, wake-up time, time to leave home in the morning, use of ITNs Indoor and outdoor HLC, 7:00 p.m.–7:00 a.m. Mosquito collections: September–October 2009, February–March 2010
Survey: April 2010
Indoor exposure for non-user (An. funestus): 98%
Indoor exposure for non-user (An. quadriannulatus): 97%
Indoor exposure for ITN-user (An. funestus): 57%
Indoor exposure for ITN-user (An. quadriannulatus): 58%
Huho et al. (2013) [24] Burkina Faso
Kenya
Tanzania
Zambia
Burkina Faso and Tanzania: Direct observation by field worker 6:00 p.m. until all household members went to sleep and 4 a.m.–6 a.m.
Kenya and Zambia: Malaria indicator survey
Observation: Household members awake, by hour
Survey: To the nearest hour, time that each household member went indoors, to bed, woke up, and left the home
Indoor and outdoor HLC, start time ranged from 6:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. and end time ranged from 6:00 a.m. to 7:00 a.m. across sites Tanzania and Burkina: 2001 and 2004
Kenya and Zambia: 2009 and 2010
Exact timing of entomological and human behavioural data collection was not provided
Indoor exposure for non-user (An. gambiae s.l.): ranged from 87 to 97% across sites
Indoor exposure for non-user (An. funestus s.l.): ranged from 62 to 97%
Bayoh et al. (2014) [25] Kenya Survey ITN use, usual time indoors for the night, bed time, wake-up time, time to leave home in the morning Indoor and outdoor HLC, 5:00 p.m.–7:00 a.m. Mosquito collections: June–July 2011
Survey: July–August 2011
Data compared to data from previous study carried out in 1989–1990
Indoor exposure for non-user: > 90% in all years
Indoor exposure for non-user during sleeping hours: ≥ 90% for all species except for An. arabiensis (97% in 1989/1990; 80% in 2009; 84% in 2011)
Indoor exposure for ITN-user during sleeping hours: (64–77% in 1989–1990; 20–52% in 2009 and 2011)
Moiroux et al. (2014) [26] Benin Survey Time each household member entered and exited the house the night before the survey and entered and exited the sleeping space Indoor and outdoor HLC, 11:00 p.m.–9:00 a.m. Mosquito collections: April 2011
Survey: March 2013
Indoor exposure for non-user: 86% and 94% in the two study sites
Protective efficacy of an ITN: 80% and 87%
Indoor exposure for ITN-user: 55% and 31%
Cooke et al. (2015) [27] Kenya Survey completed by head of household on behalf of household members, using digital watch Time household members entered and exited the house, time to sleep, and use of ITNs CDC light-traps set next to occupied ITNs, emptied hourly
Indoor traps 5:30 p.m.–5:30 a.m.; outdoor traps
5:30 p.m.–10:30 p.m. only
Mosquito collections: June 2011–May 2012
Survey: June 2011–May 2012
Indoor exposure for non-user: 95% (31% before bed and 64% while asleep)
Protective efficacy of an ITN:51%
Bradley et al. (2015) [28] Equatorial Guinea-Bioko Island Annual malaria indicator survey Time household members entered the house the night before, any other time spent outside the house between 7:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m., bed time Indoor and outdoor HLC, 7:00 p.m.–6:00 a.m. Mosquito collections: January-October 2009-2013
Survey: 2013
Indoor exposure for non-user: 80%
Kamau et al. (2017) [29] Kenya Survey administered to head of household Time each household member went to sleep and woke up HLC and CDC light traps; 6:00 am–6:00 pm Mosquito collections: July and August 2016
Survey: September and October 2016
Indoor exposure for non-user (children < 5): 90%