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Table 3 Studies including description of night time human activities

From: Measuring and characterizing night time human behaviour as it relates to residual malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of the published literature

Author (year) [reference] Location Methods used to capture night time activities Night time activities identified Night time activity categories
Alaii et al. (2003) [37] Kenya Early morning (4:00 a.m.–6:00 a.m.) observation of ITN use
Survey question on barriers to ITN use for children under 5
Funeral ceremonies
Disruption of sleeping patterns due to visitors
Large-scale socio-cultural events
travel/visitors
Dunn et al. (2010) [38] Tanzania In-depth interviews
Focus group discussions
Participatory methods
Spending night at farming plot
Outdoor sleeping
Socio-cultural events e.g. funerals
Household chores (women)
Drinking, watching television, and socializing (men)
Livelihood activities
Large-scale socio-cultural events
Routine household activities
Entertainment
Tuno et al. (2010) [30] Ghana Survey Outdoor sleeping Outdoor sleeping
Monroe et al. (2014) [39] Uganda In-depth interviews
Focus group discussions
Funerals, weddings, religious events, parties
Socializing, visiting bars
Overnight visits with friends/family
Occupations such as police and fishing
Outdoor sleeping
Domestic disputes, insurgency, illness
Large-scale socio-cultural events
Entertainment
Travel/visitors
Livelihood activities
Outdoor sleeping
Times of difficulty
Dlamini et al. (2015) [40] Swaziland In-depth interviews
Focus group discussion
Direct observation from morning to late evening
Soccer playing and socializing (adolescent boys)
Drinking at local bars (men)
Preparing meals and fetching water (women and adolescent girls)
Entertainment
Routine household activities
Monroe et al. (2015) [41] Ghana Direct observation (6:00 p.m.–6:00 a.m.)
In-depth interviews
Household chores
Socializing
Weddings, funerals
Outdoor sleeping
Routine household chores
Entertainment
Large-scale socio-cultural events
Outdoor sleeping
Swai et al. (2016) [42] Tanzania Direct observation (6:00 p.m.–7:00 a.m.)
In-depth interviews
Focus group discussions
Farming practices
Relaxing and storytelling, playing
Cooking, eating, fetching water and firewood
Livelihood activities
Routine household activities
Moshi et al. (2017) [43] Tanzania In-depth interviews
Focus group discussions
Cooking, eating, household chores
Socializing, drinking at bars
Routine household activities
Entertainment
Masalu et al. (2017) [44] Tanzania Focus group discussions Farming, night guard, sex work
Funerals, parties, and gatherings
Livelihood activities
Large-scale socio-cultural events
Makungu et al. (2017) [45] Tanzania In-depth interviews
Focus group discussions
Photovoice methods
Household chores
Watching television, drinking at bars
Fishing, street vending
Funeral ceremonies
Routine household activities
Entertainment
Livelihood activities
Large-scale socio-cultural events