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Table 3 Factors related to P. vivax recurrence

From: Evaluation of Plasmodium vivax malaria recurrence in Brazil

Predictor factor Categories Generalized Estimation Equation (GEE) model Prentice, Williams and Peterson (PWP) survival model
N (%)
N = 151,784
RR (95% CI), p value HR (95% CI), p value
Age categorical Older than 36 years 68,173 (44.9) 0.62 (0.57–0.67), p < 0.0001 0.75 (0.70; 0.81), p < 0.0001
15–35 years 46,380 (30.6) 0.71 (0.65–0.77), p < 0.0001 0.78 (0.72;0.84), p < 0.0001
12–14 years 8337 (5.5) 0.77 (0.7–0.85), p < 0.0001 0.81 (0.74;0.88), p < 0.0001
9–11 years 7604 (5) 0.82 (0.75–0.91), p < 0.0001 0.87 (0.80;0.96), p = 0.003
4–8 years 11,982 (7.9) 0.8 (0.75–0.86), p < 0.0001 0.83 (0.78;0.88), p < 0.0001
≤ 3 9308 (6.1) REF REF
Hypnozoite treatment No primaquine 2667 (1.8) 1.43 (1.29–1.58), p < 0.0001 1.53 (1.39;1.69), p < 0.0001
Primaquine 3–4.2 mg/kg 149,117 (98.2) REF REF
Gender Male 90,914 (59.9) 1.11 (1.07–1.14), p < 0.0001 1.08 (1.05;1.11), p < 0.0001
Female 60,870 (40.1) REF REF
Ethnic background Not informed 1377 (0.9) 1.60 (1.4–1.82), p < 0.0001 1.19 (1.02;1.38), p = 0.03
Native indigenous 25,705 (16.9) 0.78 (0.73–0.84), p < 0.0001 0.89 (0.84;0.95), p < 0.0001
Mixed background 106,819 (70.4) 1.03 (0.97–1.09), p = 0.34 0.95 (0.87;1.04), p = 0.25
Asian background 1527 (1) 0.96 (0.8–1.15), p = 0.68 0.94 (0.80;1.11), p = 0.49
African background 5908 (3.9) 0.94 (0.86–1.04), p = 0.23 0.95 (0.87;1.04), p = 0.25
White 10,448 (6.9) REF REF
Economic activity Road dam construction 467 (0.3) 1.01 (0.8–1.27), p = 0.94 0.92 (0.74;1.13), p = 0.42
Fishing hunting 3106 (2) 0.72 (0.63–0.82), p < 0.0001 0.73 (0.65;0.82), p < 0.0001
Vegetal extraction 1191 (0.8) 0.59 (0.48–0.73), p < 0.0001 0.70 (0.58;0.85), p < 0.0001
Mining 7046 (4.6) 0.81 (0.74–0.89), p < 0.0001 0.86 (0.79;0.93), p < 0.0001
Tourism 3182 (2.1) 0.79 (0.71–0.89), p < 0.0001 0.76 (0.68;0.84), p < 0.0001
Agriculture livestock 32,919 (21.7) 0.77 (0.73–0.82), p < 0.0001 0.79 (0.75;0.83), p < 0.0001
Others 89,132 (58.7) 0.85 (0.81–0.9), p < 0.0001 0.91 (0.87;0.95), p < 0.0001
Domestic 14,741 (9.7) REF REF
Years in school Complete graduation 1341 (0.9) 1.14 (0.97–1.35), p = 0.12 1.04 (0.89;1.22), p = 0.63
Complete high school 13,647 (9) 1.14 (1.06–1.23), p < 0.0001 1.07 (1.00;1.15), p = 0.04
Incomplete high school 12,070 (8) 1.15 (1.07–1.24), p < 0.0001 1.09 (1.02;1.17), p = 0.02
Complete fundamental studies 9745 (6.4) 1.11 (1.03–1.2), p = 0.01 1.05 (0.97;1.13), p = 0.24
Not informed 17,596 (11.6) 1.33 (1.22–1.44), p < 0.0001 1.27 (1.17;1.37), p < 0.0001
Incomplete fundamental studies 81,190 (53.5) 1.12 (1.06–1.18), p < 0.0001 1.06 (1.01;1.12), p = 0.02
Illiterate 16,195 (10.7) REF REF
  1. REF reference group