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Table 3 Association between malaria episodes and antibody seroprevalence in 18 months old children

From: The impact of early life exposure to Plasmodium falciparum on the development of naturally acquired immunity to malaria in young Malawian children

Antigen tested/parasite isolate Seropositivesa (%) No episode (n = 457) Any episode within 18 months % (n = 144) p valueb Single episode % (n = 119) p valueb Multiple episodes % (n = 25) p valueb Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p valuec Adjusted OR (95% CI) p valued
MSP1 19 kDe 327 (54.4) 224 (49.0) 103 (71.5) <0.0001 83 (69.8) <0.0001 20 (80.0) 0.003 2.24 (1.59, 3.17) <0.0001 2.21 (1.56, 3.12) <0.0001
MSP2f 162 (26.9) 113 (24.7) 49 (34.0) 0.028 40 (33.6) 0.051 9 (36.0) 0.207 1.41 (1.02, 1.94) 0.034 1.38 (1.00, 1.90) 0.049
EBA175g 69 (11.5) 50 (10.9) 19 (13.2) 0.459 13 (10.9) 0.996 6 (24.0) 0.047 1.33 (0.87, 2.05) 0.182 1.31 (0.85, 2.01) 0.216
Rh2A9h 151 (25.1) 108 (23.6) 43 (29.9) 0.133 34 (28.6) 0.265 9 (36.0) 0.160 1.32 (0.95, 1.83) 0.095 1.30 (0.93,1.80) 0.117
Schizont 325 (54.1) 222 (48.6) 103 (71.5) <0.0001 85 (71.4) <0.0001 18 (72.0) 0.023 2.14 (1.52, 3.00) <0.0001 2.20 (1.55, 3.13) <0.0001
E8Bi 43 (7.2) 24 (5.3) 19 (13.2) 0.001 17 (14.3) 0.001 2 (8.0) 0.554 1.85 (1.15, 2.98) 0.010 1.87 (1.15, 3.04) 0.011
R29i 21 (3.5) 13 (2.8) 8 (5.6) 0.122 7 (5.9) 0.107 1 (4.0) 0.738 1.55 (0.78, 3.09) 0.204 1.51 (0.75, 3.02) 0.245
3D7i 50 (8.3) 36 (7.9) 14 (9.7) 0.485 10 (8.4) 0.850 4 (16.0) 0.152 1.31 (0.80, 2.14) 0.278 1.30 (0.79, 2.14) 0.291
  1. Significant p value in italic format
  2. aSamples defined as antibody positive if levels greater than mean + 3SD of negative controls
  3. bp value compared to children with no episode calculated by Chi squared test
  4. cp-value derived from logistic regression with Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI)
  5. dp-value derived from multivariate logistic regression with Adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) after controlling for duration of gestation, HIV infection, gender of the child, maternal anaemia
  6. eMerozoite surface protein 1
  7. fMerozoite surface protein 2
  8. gErythrocyte binding antigen 175
  9. hReticulocyte binding protein homologue 2A
  10. iVariant surface antigen antibody responses