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Table 2 Comparison of characteristics by insecticide-treated net (ITN) usage across survey waves

From: A comparative study of the prevalence of and factors associated with insecticide-treated nets usage among children under 5 years of age in households that already own nets in Malawi

Variable 2010
n = 12,378
p value 2015–2016
n = 10,196
p value a
n (%)
Yes
n = 7151
n (%)
No
n = 5227
n (%)
Yes
n = 7033
n (%)
No
n = 3163
Child factors
 Age (months) < 0.001    < 0.001
 ≤ 12 1914 (63.1) 1118 (36.9)   1965 (75.3) 643 (24.7)  
 13–23 1463 (60.7) 946 (39.3)   1297 (73.6) 465 (26.4)  
 24–59 3774 (54.4) 3163 (45.6)   3771 (64.7) 2055 (35.3)  
 Gender of child 0.202    0.917
  Male 3446 (57.0) 2599 (43.0)   3506 (69.0) 1571 (31.0)  
  Female 3705 (58.5) 2628 (41.5)   3527 (68.9) 1592 (31.1)  
Maternal characteristics
 Maternal age (years) 0.012    0.038
  15–24 2431 (58.2) 1749 (41.8)   2617 (70.8) 1083 (29.2)  
  24–34 3497 (59.1) 2418 (40.9)   3138 (68.8) 1426 (31.2)  
  ≥ 35 1223 (53.6) 1060 (46.4)   1278 (66.1) 654 (33.9)  
 Educational level < 0.001    < 0.001
  No formal education 1009 (50.8) 878 (49.2)   712 (59.7) 480 (40.3)  
  Primary 4702 (56.6) 3608 (43.4)   4552 (67.9) 2156 (32.1)  
  Secondary/Post-secondary 1440 (69.2) 641 (30.8)   1769 (77.0) 527 (23.0)  
 Employed 0.131    0.004
  No 1784 (59.8) 1201 (40.2)   2131 (71.8) 838 (28.2)  
  Yes 5367 (57.1) 4027 (42.9)   4902 (67.8) 2325 (32.2)  
 Ethnicity 0.019    0.043
  Chewa 2529 (58.4) 1797 (41.6)   2380 (66.7) 1186 (33.3)  
  Tumbuka 565 (52.2) 516 (47.8)   663 (70.7) 275 (29.3)  
  Lomwe 1125 (55.9) 889 (44.1)   1307 (70.5) 547 (29.5)  
  Yao 904 (55.3) 730 (44.7)   1017 (67.9) 481 (32.1)  
  Ngoni 882 (60.9) 567 (39.1)   855 (74.1) 299 (25.9)  
  Others 1146 (61.1) 728 (38.9)   811 (68.3) 375 (31.7)  
 Marital status < 0.001    0.002
  Unmarried 670 (49.1) 696 (50.9)   919 (64.3) 511 (35.7)  
  Married 6481 (58.9) 4531 (41.1)   6114 (69.7) 2652 (30.3)  
 Religion 0.001    0.361
  Catholic 1590 (59.9) 1065 (40.1)   1351 (71.1) 549 (28.9)  
  Protestant 1587 (61.5) 994 (38.5)   1567 (68.8) 712 (31.2)  
  Muslim and others 3974 (55.6) 3168 (44.4)   4115 (68.4) 1902 (31.6)  
 Health behaviour < 0.001    <0.001
  Undesirable 4363 (55.3) 3526 (44.7)   2887 (64.9) 1560 (35.1)  
  Desirable 2788 (62.1) 1701 (37.9)   4146 (72.1) 1603 (27.9)  
Household factors
 Wealth < 0.001    < 0.001
  Poorest 1159 (50.3) 1144 (49.7)   1372 (64.8) 746 (35.2)  
  Poorer 1394 (52.8) 1249 (47.2)   1531 (67.0) 753 (33.0)  
  Middle 1633 (58.6) 1153 (41.4)   1415 (68.2) 661 (31.8)  
  Richer 1392 (59.6) 945 (40.4)   1330 (69.6) 582 (30.4)  
  Richest 1573 (68.1) 736 (31.9)   1385 (76.7) 421 (23.3)  
 Gender of head of household < 0.001    0.003
  Male 5997 (59.3) 4108 (40.7)   5507 (70.0) 2361 (30.0)  
  Female 1154 (50.8) 1119 (49.2)   1526 (65.6) 802 (34.0)  
 Roofing material < 0.001    0.001
  Unimproved 4690 (55.7) 3728 (44.3)   3996 (67.0) 1971 (33.0)  
  Improved 2461 (62.1) 1499 (37.9)   3037 (71.8) 1192 (28.2)  
 Region 0.127    0.289
  Northern 768 (53.7) 662 (46.3)   828 (71.0) 339 (29.0)  
  Central 3022 (57.6) 2229 (42.4)   2896 (67.7) 1383 (32.3)  
  Southern 3361 (59.0) 2336 (41.0)   2208 (69.7) 1442 (30.3)  
 Residence < 0.001    < 0.001
  Urban 1197 (68.4) 552 (31.6)   1111 (79.7) 282 (20.3)  
  Rural 5954 (56.0) 4675 (44.0)   5922 (67.3) 2881 (32.7)  
 Household ITN supply < 0.001    < 0.001
  Very poor 2849 (47.4) 3158 (52.6)   2696 (57.2) 2022 (42.8)  
  Poor 2232 (63.9) 1259 (36.1)   2209 (75.4) 721 (24.6)  
  Good 2070 (71.9) 810 (28.1)   2128 (83.5) 420 (16.5)  
  1. aAll p values were determined by a Chi-square test