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Table 3 Multivariate analyses of factors associated with insecticide-treated net (ITN) usage among children under 5 years old

From: A comparative study of the prevalence of and factors associated with insecticide-treated nets usage among children under 5 years of age in households that already own nets in Malawi

Variable 2010 2015–2016
aOR 95% CI p value aOR 95% CI p value
Child factors
 Age (months)
  ≤ 12 1.0    1.0   
  13–23 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.078 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.353
  24–59 0.7 (0.6–0.8) < 0.001 0.6 (0.5–0.7) < 0.001
 Gender of child       
  Male 1.0    1.0   
  Female 1.1 (0.9–1.2) 0.050 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.899
Maternal characteristics
 Maternal age (years)
  15–24 1.0    1.0   
  24–34 1.2 (1.0–1.3) 0.042 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 0.349
  ≥ 35 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 0.214 1.1 (0.9–1.4) 0.177
 Educational level
  Secondary/post-secondary 1.0    1.0   
  No formal education 0.7 (0.6–0.9) 0.002 0.6 (0.49–0.8) 0.001
  Primary 0.8 (0.7–0.9) 0.011 0.8 (0.67–0.9) 0.008
 Employed
  No 1.0    1.0   
  Yes 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.641 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 0.076
 Ethnicity
  Lomwe 1.0    1.0   
  Chewa 1.3 (1.1–1.7) 0.019 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 0.501
  Tumbuka 0.9 (0.7–1.3) 0.685 0.9 (0.7–1.3) 0.622
  Yao 1.1 (0.8–1.3) 0.688 0.9 (0.8–1.3) 0.927
  Ngoni 1.4 (1.1–1.7) 0.008 1.1 (0.9–1.5) 0.265
  Others 1.3 (1.1–1.6) 0.002 0.8 (0.7–1.1) 0.177
 Marital status
  Married 1.0    1.0   
  Unmarried 0.8 (0.7–0.9) 0.013 0.8 (0.7–1.0) 0.089
 Religion
  Catholic 1.0    1.0   
  Protestant 0.9 (0.8–1.2) 0.923 0.8 (0.6–0.9) 0.043
  Muslim and other 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.253 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.224
 Health behaviour
  Undesirable 1.0    1.00   
  Desirable 1.2 (1.1–1.3) 0.001 1.2 (1.1–1.3) 0.016
  Household factors
 Wealth
  Poorest 1.00    1.00   
  Poorer 0.9 (0.8–1.2) 0.861 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.970
  Middle 1.2 (1.1–1.6) 0.012 1.0 (0.9–1.3) 0.725
  Richer 1.4 (1.1–1.7) 0.004 0.9 (0.8–1.3) 0.944
  Richest 1.7 (1.3–2.2) < 0.001 0.8 (0.6–1.2) 0.275
 Gender of head of household
  Male 1.0    1.0   
  Female 0.8 (0.7–0.9) 0.002 0.8 (0.7–0.9) 0.012
 Roofing material       
  Improved 1.0    1.0   
  Unimproved 1.4 (1.1–1.7) 0.001 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.910
 Region
  Northern 1.0    1.0   
  Central 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 0.237 0.8 (0.6–1.1) 0.261
  Southern 1.5 (1.2–1.9) 0.002 0.9 (0.8–1.3) 0.973
 Residence
  Urban 1.0    1.0   
  Rural 0.8 (0.6–1.1) 0.060 0.6 (0.5–0.8) 0.001
 Household ITN supply
  Very poor 1.0    1.0   
  Poor 1.9 (1.6–2.1) < 0.001 2.3 (1.9–2.6) < 0.001
  Good 2.6 (2.3–2.9) < 0.001 3.8 (3.2–4.5) < 0.001
  1. aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, ITN insecticide treated nets