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Table 2 The distribution of diagnostic discriminatory accuracy, likelihood ratios and the predictive values of RDT against microscopy test by selected children characteristics in the Nigeria 2015 MIS

From: On the discriminatory and predictive accuracy of the RDT against the microscopy in the diagnosis of malaria among under-five children in Nigeria

Characteristics Sensitivity Specificity Total agreement LR+ LR− PPV NPV
% (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) LR+ (95% CI) LR− (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI)
Total 87.6 (85.9–89.2) 75.8 (74.4–77.1) 79.0 (77.9–80.0) 3.6 (3.4–3.8) 0.16 (0.14–0.19) 57.5 (56.1–58.9) 94.2 (93.5–94.9)
Children age
 0–6 Months 85.7 (42.099.3) 90.1 (50.195.6) 89.7 (83.096.5) 8.7 (4.018.7) 0.16 (0.03–0.97) 46.1 (20.473.8) 98.5 (90.599.9)
 7–23 Months 86.1 (81.989.3) 80.7 (78.682.7) 81.8 (80.083.6) 4.5 (4.05.0) 0.17 (0.13–0.22) 53.3 (59.157.4) 95.8 (94.496.8)
 24–59 Months 88.1 (86.089.8) 72.9 (71.174.5) 77.5 (76.278.8) 3.2 (3.03.5) 0.16 (0.14–0.19) 58.9 (56.661.2) 93.2 (92.094.2)
Sex
 Male 87.6 (85.1–89.8) 74.7 (72.876.6) 78.3 (76.7–79.8) 3.5 (3.2–3.7) 0.17 (0.14–0.20) 57.2 (55.3–59.1) 93.9 (92.8–94.9)
 Female 87.6 (85.0–89.9) 76.9 (75.078.7) 79.7 (78.2–81.2) 3.8 (3.5–4.1) 0.16 (0.13–0.20) 57.8 (55.7–59.8) 94.5 (93.4–95.4)
Location
 Urban 83.6 (78.388.1) 86.3 (84.687.9) 86.0 (96.798.1) 6.1 (5.47.0) 0.19 (0.14–0.25) 45.5 (42.348.8) 97.5 (96.798.1)
 Rural 88.3 (86.590.0) 68.3 (66.470.1) 75.3 (72.976.7) 2.8 (2.63.0) 0.17 (0.15–0.20) 60.2 (58.761.7) 91.5 (90.292.6)
Zone
 North Central 92.8 (89.595.3) 73.5 (70.476.5) 79.1 (76.681.4) 3.5 (3.13.9) 0.10 (0.070.14) 58.5 (55.761.3) 96.2 (94.597.4)
 North East 86.7 (82.390.4) 74.3 (71.277.3) 77.6 (75.080.0) 3.4 (3.03.8) 0.18 (0.130.24) 54.5 (51.457.7) 94.0 (92.195.5)
 North West 85.0 (81.987.8) 63.3 (59.966.6) 72.2 (69.874.5) 2.3 (2.12.6) 0.24 (0.190.29) 61.5 (59.363.7) 86.0 (83.488.2)
 South East 94.0 (86.598.0) 80.6 (76.884.4) 82.6 (79.285.6) 4.9 (4.05.9) 0.07 (0.030.17) 45.4 (40.750.1) 98.7 (97.199.5)
 South South 79.5 (72.185.6) 85.4 (82.388.1) 84.2 (81.486.8) 5.5 (4.46.7) 0.24 (0.180.33) 58.3 (53.063.3) 94.2 (92.295.7)
 South West 93.4 (87.597.1) 84.9 (81.887.7) 86.3 (83.688.7) 6.2 (5.17.5) 0.08 (0.040.15) 55.3 (50.560.1) 98.5 (97.199.2)
Fever in the last 2 weeks
 No 86.5 (83.8–88.9) 82.7 (81.284.2) 83.6 (82.384.9) 5.0 (4.65.5) 0.16 (0.140.20) 60.1 (57.962.3) 95.3 (94.4–96.1)
 Yes 88.6 (86.2–90.7) 65.8 (63.568.1) 73.2 (71.474.9) 2.6 (2.42.8) 0.17 (0.140.21) 55.4 (53.657.1) 92.4 (90.9–93.6)
Treated fever
 No 92.8 (87.796.4) 70.5 (63.177.2) 81.1 (76.485.2) 3.2 (2.54.0) 0.10 (0.060.18) 73.9 (69.178.1) 91.7 (86.2–95.2)
 Yes 87.6 (84.490.0) 65.3 (62.967.7) 92.4 (90.993.7) 2.5 (2.32.7) 0.19 (0.150.23) 52.2 (50.354.0) 92.4 (90.9–93.7)
Slept under LLITNs
 No 86.7 (84.3–88.9) 78.0 (76.379.6) 80.3 (78.981.6) 3.9 (3.64.3) 0.17 (0.14–0.20) 57.7 (54.9–60.3) 94.5 (93.4–95.4)
 Yes 88.6 (85.9–90.8) 72.5 (70.274.6) 77.2 (75.578.9) 3.2 (2.93.5) 0.16 (0.13–0.15) 57.4 (54.4–60.3) 93.8 (92.4–95.1)
Building material
 Totally improved 87.8 (84.290.6) 82.5 (80.884.1) 83.4 (82.084.8) 5.0 (4.65.5) 0.14 (0.110.19) 49.9 (46.353.5) 97.1 (96.397.8)
 Partially improved 89.2 (86.591.5) 71.1 (68.773.3) 76.6 (74.878.4) 3.1 (2.83.4) 0.15 (0.120.19) 57.5 (54.460.6) 93.7 (92.195.1)
 Nothing improved 85.1 (81.588.2) 60.4 (55.964.7) 72.4 (69.675.3) 2.2 (1.92.4) 0.24 (0.200.31) 67.1 (63.170.8) 81.1 (76.984.9)
Anaemia level
 Severe 97.7 (93.599.5) 38.7 (26.651.9) 78.8 (72.384.3) 1.6 (1.32.0) 0.06 (0.020.19) 77.1 (73.480.4) 88.9 (71.596.2)
 Moderate 89.3 (87.191.3) 63.7 (61.066.3) 74.2 (72.376.0) 2.5 (2.32.7) 0.17 (0.140.20) 63.0 (61.264.8) 89.6 (87.791.3)
 Mild 82.7 (78.086.8) 77.7 (75.280.0) 78.7 (76.680.8) 3.7 (3.34.2) 0.22 (0.170.28) 49.5 (46.652.5) 94.4 (93.095.6)
 Not anaemic 81.9 (76.586.5) 85.1 (83.386.8) 84.7 (83.086.3) 5.5 (4.86.3) 0.21 (0.160.28) 44.3 (41.247.5) 97.0 (96.1 - 97.7)
  1. Proportions in Bold and Italics are significantly different at 5% significance level