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TableĀ 1 Multi-scale ecological and evolutionary drivers of Plasmodium knowlesi.

From: Defining the ecological and evolutionary drivers of Plasmodium knowlesi transmission within a multi-scale framework

Scale and description Drivers Gaps in knowledge
Continental: global spread and dispersal of pathogen Earth history Phylogenetic links between P. knowlesi and other related taxa, shared life-history traits
Regional/biogeographic: broad climatic variation or geographical boundaries restrict P. knowlesi to SE Asia Barriers to dispersal; natural distribution of hosts and vectors and biodiversity patterns Distribution of the hosts and vectors of the parasite and the enabling and limiting factors for this distribution
Local landscape: fine-scale distribution of species within the habitat Interaction between parasite, host, and vector within a rapidly changing habitat Changing forest cover and land use and the effects on the distribution of vectors and hosts of P. knowlesi and parasite transmission rate
Individual: limiting and facilitating factors of transmission to humans Individual health, behaviour, interaction with the vector and host, level of detection and treatment Severity of infection in Malaysian Borneo versus the rest of SE Asia; asymptomatic carriage of the parasite within communities; degree of human to human transmission
Cellular: disease pathways Infection route, immunological status, previous exposure P. knowlesi multiplication in human blood; methods for accurate diagnosis
Molecular: human resistance to the disease; different genotypes of the parasite Human host resistance or susceptibility; different P. knowlesi genotypes have varying disease severity and host preferences Genetic factors influencing disease severity, genetic factors influencing choice of hosts and vectors, erythrocyte invasion pathways