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Table 5 Mechanisms of insecticide resistance detected in Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis populations

From: Dynamics and monitoring of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors across mainland Tanzania from 1997 to 2017: a systematic review

Species Insecticide class Insecticide Mechanisms of resistance Refs.
Target site genes Detoxification genes Cuticular
An. arabiensis Pyrethroids Deltamethrin and permethrin L1014S CY6P3, CYP9J4, CYP9J5, and CYP6P1. High activity of Oxidase and esterase enzymes CPAP3-A1b, CPR5 and CPLCG5 [15, 36, 38]
An. arabiensis Pyrethroids Permethrin L1014S CYP4G16, ABC transporter and high activity of Oxidase and esterase enzyme   [9, 24, 28, 34, 37]
An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis Pyrethroids Lambdacyhalothrin L1014S
L1014F
Presence and high activity of oxidase and esterase enzyme   [9, 24, 28, 34, 36]
An. gambiae s.s. Pyrethroids Permethrin L1014S
L1014F
   [9]
An. gambiae s.s. Organochlorine DDT L1014S Over transcription of CYP4J10, CY6P3, multicopper oxidase and sulfotransferase genes and high activity of GST enzymes   [11, 39]
An. arabiensis Organochlorine Dieldrin RDL, over transcription GABA receptor genes    [15, 33]
An. arabiensis Organophosphates   Over transcription of acetylcholinesterase genes High activity of esterase enzymes   [11, 15]
An. arabiensis Carbamates   Over transcription of acetylcholinesterase genes Presence and high activity of oxidase   [11, 15, 28]
An. arabiensis Neonicotinoids   Over transcription of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes    [15]
An. gambiae s.s. Different classes    CPLCG4, CPLCG5, CPLCG15 and CPR131 [39]