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Table 2 Distribution (number and proportion) of genotypes (kelch13 mutations, Pfmdr1 and Pfpm2 gene copy numbers) detected in Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected from Southeast Asia and Africa in 2014–2015

From: African isolates show a high proportion of multiple copies of the Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsin-2 gene, a piperaquine resistance marker

Locus Allele/haplotype Number of isolates (%) detected in P value
Asia (N = 82) Africa (N = 355)
kelch 13 ART 46 (67.6) 0 (0.0) < 10−4±
OTH 1 (1.5) 10 (3.0)
WT 21 (30.9) 322 (97.0)
Pfpm2 Single copy 68 (86.1) 218 (73.2) 0.02¥
Multiple copies 11 (13.9) 80 (26.8)
Pfmdr1 Single copy 74 (93.7) 240 (78.9) 0.002¥
Multiple copies 5 (6.3) 64 (21.1)
Pfpm2/Pfmdr1 Single copy/single copy 64 (81.0) 189 (63.4) 0.009±
Single copy/multiple copies 4 (5.1) 29 (9.7)
Multiple copies/single copy 10 (12.7) 47 (15.8)
Multiple copies/multiple copies 1 (1.3) 33 (11.1)
kelch 13/Pfpm2/Pfmdr1 ART/multiple copies/single copy 7 (10.8) 0 (0.0) < 10−4±
WT/multiple copies/single copy 2 (3.0) 43 (14.7)
ART/others 38 (57.5) 0 (0.0)
WT/others 18 (27.3) 241 (82.5)
  1. ART: validated or candidate kelch 13 mutations; WT: kelch 13 Wild type, OTH: kelch 13 mutations with unknown association with artemisinin resistance (detailed in Tables 3 and 4)
  2. Italic font denotes the allele or haplotype associate with drug resistance. P-value (Chi squared test± or Fischer exact test¥)