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Table 1 Summary of features of patients with immune-mediated post-artesunate delayed haemolysis (PADH)

From: Positive direct antiglobulin test in post-artesunate delayed haemolysis: more than a coincidence?

Gender, age Immunity Plasmodium species Parasitaemia (%) Malaria severity criteria Number of artesunate doses received PCT (days) PADH onset (day) Hb nadir (g/dL) Days to Hb nadira
M 55 Non-immune P.f. 28.6 Hyperparasitaemia 2 4 14 5.1 13
M 55 Non-immune P.f. 8.7 Hyperparasitaemia, AKI, hyperlactaemia 4 20c 20 9.6 26
M 40 Non-immune P.f. 45 Hyperparasitaemia, AKI, respiratory distress 5 3 9 6.1 12
M 49 Non-immune P.f. 25 Hyperparasitaemia, AKI, respiratory distress, hyperbilirubinaemia 5 3 13 7.7 16
F 17 Semi-immune P.f. 0.8 Shock, hyperlactaemia 3 3 14 4.6 16
M 43 Non-immune P.f. 30 Hyperparasitaemia, prostration (psychomotor slow down), AKI, acidosis and hyperlactaemia 8 5.3 18
M 78 Non-immune P.f. 27 Hyperparasitaemia, AKI 1.5 15 6.4 15
M 53 P.f. 34 Hyperparasitaemia, impaired consciousness, jaundice 2 4 6.9 20
F 44 P.f. 37 Hyperparasitaemia 3 4 6.1 15
F 59 P.f. 30 Hyperparasitaemia, haemoglobinuria, jaundice 1 10 6.9 13
M 54 Non-immune P.f. 21 Hyperparasitaemia, AKI, shock, impaired consciousness, hyperbilirubinaemia 4 7 5.7 14
F 44 Non-immune P.f. 37 Hyperparasitaemia, AKI, acidosis, purpura with thrombocytopenia 5 10 5.6
F 50 Pf + P.vivax 45 Hyperparasitaemia, AKI, acidosis, hyperlactaemia, hypotension, hyperbilirubinaemia 5 7 4.1 11
P.f.
Gender, age Coombs Treatment Survival Ref. Country Year Frequencyb
M 55 C3d+ Corticosteroids and blood transfusion Yes Our cases Spain 2018 40% (4/10)
M 55 C3d+ and cryoagglutinins None Yes Our cases Spain 2018 40% (4/10)
M 40 C3d+ Corticosteroids and blood transfusion Yes Our cases Spain 2018 40% (4/10)
M 49 C3d+ Corticosteroids and blood transfusion Yes Our cases Spain 2018 40% (4/10)
F 17 IgG+ and C3d+ (positive drug-dependent antibodies test) Corticosteroids Yes [10] France 2014 100% (1/1)
M 43 C3d+ Corticosteroids Yes [11] France 2018 100% (1/1)
M 78 Direct Coombs Corticosteroids and blood transfusion Yes [12] United Kingdom 2012 100% (1/1)
M 53 C3d+ None Yes [13] Belgium/Netherlands 2012 50% (3/6)
F 44 IgG+ and C3d+ Corticosteroids and blood transfusion Yes [13] Belgium/Netherlands 2012 50% (3/6)
F 59 IgG+ and IgM+ Corticosteroids and blood transfusion Yes [13] Belgium/Netherlands 2012 50% (3/6)
M 54 IgG+ (anti-E specificity) Blood transfusion Yes [14] Germany 2012 33% (1/3)
F 44 No data Blood transfusion Yes [15] Spain 2017 25% (1/4)
F 50 IgG+ Corticosteroids and blood transfusion Yes [16] India 2018 100% (1/1)
IgM+ [5] France 2014 8% (1/13)
  1. AKI acute kidney injury, F female, Hb haemoglobin, M male, PCT parasite clearance time, P.f. Plasmodium falciparum, Ref Reference
  2. aCounted from artesunate initiation
  3. bFrequency of immune-mediated PADH cases among the overall of PADH patients reported in each article
  4. cAlthough non-viable pyknotic forms of Plasmodium were seen until day 20 after artesunate initiation, trophozoites could only be detected until day 6