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Table 3 Factors associated with microscopic or sub-microscopic parasitaemia at enrolment

From: Household and maternal risk factors for malaria in pregnancy in a highly endemic area of Uganda: a prospective cohort study

Variable Categories Parasitaemia n (%) Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
RR (95% CI) p-value aRRa (95% CI) p-value
Wealth index categories Least poor 179 (73.4) Reference Reference
Middle 215 (85.3) 1.16 (1.06–1.27) 0.001 1.07 (0.98–1.16) 0.16
Poorest 222 (86.4) 1.18 (1.08–1.29) < 0.001 1.09 (0.99–1.19) 0.07
Type of house constructionb Modern 111 (64.5) Reference Reference
Traditional 505 (86.9) 1.35 (1.20–1.51) < 0.001 1.29 (1.15–1.45) < 0.001
Whether airbricks were present Present 147 (70.3) Reference Reference
Not present 469 (86.2) 1.23 (1.12–1.35) < 0.001 0.96 (0.85–1.08) 0.49
Number of windows present ≥ 2 windows 114 (79.2) Reference Reference
1 window 360 (80.5) 1.02 (0.92–1.12) 0.73 0.96 (0.87–1.05) 0.35
No windows 142 (87.7) 1.11 (1.00–1.23) 0.05 0.98 (0.88–1.08) 0.65
Level of education O level or beyond 134 (72.0) Reference Reference
None or primary 482 (85.0) 1.18 (1.07–1.30) 0.001 1.13 (1.02–1.24) 0.02
Bed net ownership before enrolment LLIN 472 (81.5) Reference Reference
Untreated 88 (80.7) 0.99 (0.90–1.09) 0.85 0.96 (0.87–1.06) 0.45
No bed net 56 (86.2) 1.06 (0.95–1.17) 0.30 1.01 (0.91–1.12) 0.87
Categories of gravidity Multigravida 304 (79.6) Reference Reference
Secundigravida 150 (80.2) 1.01 (0.92–1.10) 0.86 1.02 (0.94–1.11) 0.61
Primigravida 162 (88.0) 1.11 (1.03–1.19) 0.007 1.10 (1.02–1.18) 0.009
  1. RR risk ratio
  2. aAdjusted for wealth index, type of house construction, level of education, bed net ownership before enrolment and categories of gravidity
  3. bModern houses defined as those with plaster or cement walls, metal or wooden roof, and closed eaves; all other houses defined as traditional