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Table 5 Factors associated with microscopic or sub-microscopic parasitaemia during pregnancy following initiation of IPTp

From: Household and maternal risk factors for malaria in pregnancy in a highly endemic area of Uganda: a prospective cohort study

Variable Categories Parasitaemiaa n (%) Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
RR (95% CI) p-value aRRb (95% CI) p-value
Wealth index categories Least poor 395 (35.7) Reference Reference
Middle 539 (46.8) 1.28 (1.10–1.49) 0.001 1.25 (1.12–1.41) < 0.001
Poorest 534 (46.3) 1.28 (1.10–1.49) 0.001 1.24 (1.10–1.39) < 0.001
Type of house constructionc Modern 285 (36.9) Reference Reference
Traditional 1183 (44.8) 1.23 (1.06–1.44) 0.007 1.14 (1.01–1.28) 0.03
Whether airbricks were present Present 345 (36.6) Reference Reference
Not present 1123 (45.5) 1.26 (1.10–1.45) 0.001 1.16 (1.00–1.35) 0.05
Number of windows present ≥ 2 windows 274 (41.3) Reference Reference
1 window 885 (43.9) 1.08 (0.93–1.26) 0.32 0.99 (0.88–1.11) 0.85
No windows 309 (42.3) 1.04 (0.87–1.25) 0.64 1.00 (0.87–1.14) 0.98
Level of education O level or beyond 301 (36.6) Reference Reference
None or primary 1167 (45.1) 1.23 (1.06–1.43) 0.006 1.19 (1.06–1.34) 0.002
Categories of gravidity Multigravida 705 (39.1) Reference Reference
Secundigravida 337 (41.0) 1.05 (0.90–1.21) 0.55 1.17 (1.05–1.31) 0.006
Primigravida 426 (54.1) 1.38 (1.22–1.57) < 0.001 1.32 (1.20–1.45) < 0.001
IPTp regimen Monthly DP 367 (21.1) Reference Reference
Monthly SP 1101 (65.9) 3.11 (2.81–3.45) < 0.001 3.13 (2.84–3.46) < 0.001
  1. RR risk ratio
  2. aMeasured at the time of routine visits done every 4 weeks during pregnancy (n = 3412)
  3. bAdjusted for wealth index, type of house construction, level of education, categories of gravidity and IPTp regimen
  4. cModern houses defined as those with plaster or cement walls, metal or wooden roof, and closed eaves; all other houses defined as traditional