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Table 6 Factors associated with placental malaria

From: Household and maternal risk factors for malaria in pregnancy in a highly endemic area of Uganda: a prospective cohort study

Variable Categories Placental malaria, n (%) Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
RR (95% CI) p-value aRRa (95% CI) p-value
Wealth index categories Least poor 83 (39.5) Reference Reference
Middle 99 (44.8) 1.13 (0.91–1.42) 0.27 1.02 (0.84–1.24) 0.83
Poorest 109 (49.1) 1.24 (1.00–1.54) 0.05 1.14 (0.94–1.38) 0.18
Type of house constructionb Modern 53 (35.8) Reference Reference
Traditional 238 (47.1) 1.32 (1.04–1.66) 0.02 1.19 (0.96–1.48) 0.10
Whether airbricks were present Present 64 (35.6) Reference Reference
Not present 227 (48.0) 1.35 (1.09–1.68) 0.007 1.06 (0.81–1.39) 0.67
Number of windows present ≥ 2 windows 53 (40.2) Reference Reference
1 window 172 (45.1) 1.12 (0.89–1.42) 0.33 0.99 (0.80–1.22) 0.93
No windows 66 (47.1) 1.17 (0.89–1.54) 0.25 1.04 (0.81–1.33) 0.76
Level of education O level or beyond 65 (41.9) Reference Reference
None or primary 226 (45.4) 1.08 (0.88–1.33) 0.46 1.16 (0.95–1.41) 0.14
Categories of gravidity Multigravida 94 (27.3) Reference Reference
Secundigravida 72 (47.1) 1.72 (1.35–2.19) < 0.001 1.85 (1.48–2.31) < 0.001
Primigravida 125 (80.1) 2.93 (2.43–3.54) < 0.001 2.87 (2.39–3.45) < 0.001
IPTp regimen Monthly DP 94 (28.4) Reference Reference
Monthly SP 197 (61.2) 2.15 (1.78–2.61) < 0.001 2.13 (1.79–2.53) < 0.001
  1. RR risk ratio
  2. aAdjusted for wealth index, type of house construction, level of education, categories of gravidity and IPTp regimen
  3. bModern houses defined as those with plaster or cement walls, metal or wooden roof, and closed eaves; all other houses defined as traditional