Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of children studied according to the level of cognitive development

From: Malaria impact on cognitive function of children in a peri-urban community in the Brazilian Amazon

Characteristic No low cognitive development Low cognitive development Total
N % N % N %
Demographic
 Sex
  Male 16 14.0 98 86.0 114 100.0
  Female 19 18.1 86 81.9 105 100.0
  Total 35   184   219  
 Age
  2.6–3.11 15 21.1 56 78.9 71 100.0
  4–7.7 20 13.5 128 86.5 148 100.0
  Total 35   184   219  
 Education
  Not study 24 19.7 98 80.3 122 100.0
  Study 11 11.3 86 88.7 97 100.0
  Total 35   184   219  
Socio-economic
 Brick-built house
  No 23 16.4 117 83.6 140 100.0
  Yes 12 15.2 67 84.8 79 100.0
  Total 35   184   219  
 Family income
  ≤ 1 min. wage 3 15.0 17 85.0 20 100.0
  > 1 min. wage 32 16.1 167 83.9 199 100.0
  Total 35   184   219  
 Piped water
  No 28 21.2 104 78.8 132 100.0
  Yes 7 8.0 80 92.0 87 100.0
  Total 35   184   219  
 Sewage system
  No 34 15.8 181 84.2 215 100.0
  Yes 1 25.0 3 75.0 4 100.0
  Total 35   184   219  
 Housing conditions
  Precarious 7 15.2 39 84.8 46 100.0
  Reasonable 21 22.1 74 77.9 95 100.0
  Better conditions 7 9.0 71 91.0 78  
  Total 35   184   219  
 > 2 residents/room
  No 27 16.7 135 83.3 162 100.0
  Yes 8 14.0 49 86.0 57 100.0
  Total 35   184   219  
Maternal and family conditions
 Adolescent mother
  No 34 15.7 183 84.3 217 100.0
  Yes 1 50.0 1 50.0 2 100.0
  Total 35   184   219  
 Mother’s education
  Not study 31 15.7 167 84.3 198 100.0
  Study 4 19.0 17 81.0 21 100.0
  Total 35   184   219  
 Disorders during pregnancy
  No 33 16.9 162 83.1 195 100.0
  Yes 2 8.3 22 91.7 24 100.0
  Total 35   184   219  
 Level of family stimulus
  More stimulated 5 9.1 50 90.9 55 100.0
  Regularly stimulated 9 16.4 46 83.6 55 100.0
  Little stimulated 12 21.1 45 78.9 57 100.0
  Almost no stimulus 9 17.3 43 82.7 52 100.0
  Total 35   184   219  
Child health
 Malnutrition
  No 8 19.0 34 81.0 42 100.0
  Yes 27 15.3 150 84.7 177 100.0
  Total 35   184   219  
 Anemia
  No 32 17.4 152 82.6 184 100.0
  Yes 3 8.6 32 91.4 35 100.0
  Total 35   184   219  
 Intestinal parasites
  No 6 16.7 30 83.3 36 100.0
  Yes 29 15.8 154 84.2 183 100.0
  Total 35   184   219  
 Low birth weight
  No 33 16.1 172 83.9 205 100.0
  Yes 2 16.7 10 83.3 12 100.0
  Total 35   182   217  
 Premature birth
  No 32 15.5 174 84.5 206 100.0
  Yes 3 23.1 10 76.9 13 100.0
  Total 35   184   219  
 Breast feeding until the sixth month
  No 12 14.0 74 86.0 86 100.0
  Yes 12 16.4 61 83.6 73 100.0
  Total 24   135   159  
 Vaccinated
  No 1 4.5 21 95.5 22 100.0
  Yes 34 17.4 161 82.6 195 100.0
  Total 35   182   217  
 Infectious disease in the last 30 days
  No 34 15.8 181 84.2 215 100.0
  Yes 1 25.0 3 75.0 4 100.0
  Total 35   184   219  
 Chronic diseases
  No 34 15.8 181 84.2 215 100.0
  Yes 1 25.0 3 75.0 4 100.0
  Total 35   184   219  
 Exposure to malaria
 Occurrence of malaria
  No malaria history 24 20.2 95 79.8 119 100.0
  Had an episode/more 11 11.0 89 89.0 100 100.0
  Total 35   184   219  
 Number of malaria episodes
  1 7 10.8 58 89.2 65 100.0
  2 1 8.3 11 91.7 12 100.0
  3 2 14.3 12 85.7 14 100.0
  4 1 11.1 8 88.9 9 100.0
  Total 11   89   100  
 Exposure to malaria
  No exposure 24 20.2 95 79.8 119 100.0
  Mild 1 9.1 10 90.9 11 100.0
  Moderate 8 10.8 66 89.2 74 100.0
  Severe 2 13.3 13 86.7 15  
  Total 35   184   219  
 Malaria-related hospitalization
  No 9 9.8 83 90.2 92 100.0
  Yes 1 25.0 3 75.0 4 100.0
  Total 10   86   96  
 Malaria during pregnancy
  No 30 15.5 164 84.5 194 100.0
  Yes 5 20.0 20 80.0 25 100.0
  Total 35   184   219  
 Malaria attacks during pregnancy
  No 9 9.8 83 90.2 92 100.0
  Yes 1 25.0 3 75.0 4 100.0
  Total 10   86   96