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Table 2 Case reports of P. malariae recrudescence

From: A case of Plasmodium malariae recurrence: recrudescence or reinfection?

Ref/Author/year Nationality Age/sex Country of Residence Country of acquisition Species diagnosis Quartan fever pattern PCR Interval between episodes Risk factor Treatment
12/Shute/1944 Indian 26/F United Kingdom India P. malariae (Microscopy) NR No 21 years NR Mepacrine
13/Spitler/1948 Italian 69/M USA Italy P. malariae (Microscopy) Yes No 36 years NR Quinine
14/Lentini/1955 Italian 70/F Italy Italy P. malariae (Microscopy on BM) Yes No 45 years NR Quinine
15/Creyx/1955 French 56/F France Macedonia P. malariae (Microscopy) Yes No 32 years Surgery for hydatidosis Quinine, plasmoquine
16/Duggan and Shute/1961 English 42/M United Kingdom Myanmar (ex Burma) P. malariae (Microscopy) NR No 13 years NR Primaquine
5/Guazzi/1963 Italian 63/F Italy Italy P. malariae (Microscopy) Yes No 53 years Splenectomy NR
17/Tsuchida/1982 Japanese 63/M Japan Papua New Guinea P. malariae (Microscopy) Yes No 36 years Splenectomy, nephrectomy Sulfa-pyrimethamine, primaquine
18/Hess/1993 German 46/F Germany Kenya P. malariae (Microscopy) Yes (2 cycles) No 78 and 106 days P. falciparum malaria Halofantrine
6/Vinetz/1998 Greek 72/F USA Greece P. malariae (PCR) Yes (5 cycles) Yes 40–70 years Methotrexate therapy Chloroquine
7/Chadre/2000 Trinidadian 70/M Trinidad Trinidad P. malariae (Microscopy) Yes (4 cycles) No 33 years; possibly 65 years Neurosurgery Chloroquine + primaquine
19/Skoutelis/2000 Greek 60/F Greece Greece P. malariae (Microscopy) Yes No 45 years Treated with chlorambucil and methylprednisolone (suspected myeloproliferative syndrome) Chloroquine
20/Morovic/2003 Serbian 61/M Croatia (Former Yugoslavia) Croatia P. malariae (Microscopy) Yes No 35 years NR Chloroquine
21/Chim/2004 Chinese 66/F Hong Kong China P. malariae (Microscopy) NR No 55 years? Splenectomy Chloroquine
22/Muller-Stover/2008 Nigerian 34/M Germany Nigeria P. malariae (Microscopy; PCR) NR Yes 14 weeks P. falciparum malaria Atovaquone/proguanil
23/Smith/2011 Australian 59/M Australia Uganda P. malariae (Microscopy) NR No 47 days P. falciparum malaria Chloroquine
24/Hedelius/2011 American 34/M USA Nigeria P. malariae (Microscopy; PCR) NR Yes 14 years NR/Concomitant diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome Atovaquone/proguanil
25/Franken/2012 Kenyan 38/F Germany Kenya P. malariae (Microscopy; PCR) NR Yes 4 months P. falciparum malaria Chloroquine
26/Hong/2012 Korean 23/F Korea Ghana P. malariae (Microscopy; PCR) NR Yes 1 month P. malariae malaria First episode: chloroquine; second episode: mefloquine
27/Liang/2013 NR 20/F USA Uganda P. malariae (Microscopy; PCR) Yes Yes 8 weeks P. malariae malaria First episode: chloroquine; second episode: atovaquone-proguanil
28/Kugasia/2014 Sierra Leone 65/M USA Sierra Leone P. malariae (initially misidentified as P. falciparum) No No 25 months P. malariae malaria First episode: quinine + clindamycin Second episode: chloroquine
29/Visser/2016 Dutch NR/M The Netherlands Uganda P. malariae (Microscopy; PCR) No Noa 2 months P. malariae malaria Chloroquine
30/Rutledge/2017 Ugandan 31/M Australia Uganda P. malariae (Microscopy; PCR) No Yes 52 days P. malariae malaria First episode: artemether/lumefantrine Second episode: hydroxychloroquine + primaquine
31/Islam/2018 Ivory Coast 23 months/M USA Liberia P. malariae (Microscopy; PCR) No Yes 4 months P. malariae malaria First episode: Chloroquine Second episode: chloroquine Third episode: atovaquone–proguanil
  1. M male, F female, PCR polymerase chain reaction, NR not reported, BM bone marrow
  2. aPCR was not employed for the recurrence diagnosis