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Table 1 Susceptibility status of An. gambiae s.l. collected in Togo and Kisumu exposed to the four classes of insecticide

From: Insecticide resistance profiles of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Togo and genetic mechanisms involved, during 3-year survey: is there any need for resistance management?

Year Insecticides Strain N Mortality (%) [95% CI] Susceptibility status
2012 4% DDT Baguida 103 10.68 [2.71–18.23] Resistant
Kolokopé 95 0 0 Resistant
Kovié 98 1.02 [0.15–3.22] Resistant
Kisumu 103 100 100 Susceptible
0.05% Deltamethrin Baguida 99 32.32 [23.23–41.62] Resistant
Kolokopé 101 3.96 [0.77–6.93] Resistant
Kovié 95 33.68 [20.2–46.4] Resistant
Kisumu 98 100 100 Susceptible
0.1% Bendiocarb Baguida 96 7.29 [1.19–13.8] Resistant
Kolokopé 99 89.89 [82.32–97.42] Resistant
Kovié 94 60.63 [45.77–76.48] Resistant
Kisumu 106 100 100 Susceptible
0.4% Chlorpyriphos methyl Baguida 100 100 100 Susceptible
Kolokopé 103 100 100 Susceptible
Kovié 106 100 100 Susceptible
Kisumu 97 100 100 Susceptible
2013 4% DDT Baguida 97 6.18 [0.76–12.23] Resistant
Kolokopé 96 0 0 Resistant
Kovié 90 15.55 [7.16–22.96] Resistant
Kisumu 99 100 100 Susceptible
0.05% Deltamethrin Baguida 87 52 [46.71–56.64] Resistant
Kolokopé 74 14.86 [7.79–21.92] Resistant
Kovié 90 22.22 [12.32–32.88] Resistant
Kisumu 101 100 100 Susceptible
0.75% Permethrin Baguida 89 20.22 [5.15–37.39] Resistant
Kolokopé 80 7.5 [0.98–14.3] Resistant
Kovié 90 26.26 [14.58–39.68] Resistant
Kisumu 98 100 100 Susceptible
0.05% Lambdacyhalothrin Baguida 90 57.77 [51.15–64.69] Resistant
Kolokopé 85 0 0 Resistant
Kovié 81 14.81 [1.65–28.21] Resistant
Kisumu 108 100 100 Susceptible
0.1% Bendiocarb Baguida 87 9.19 [0.58–18.33] Resistant
Kolokopé 88 98.86 [96.92–101] Susceptible
Kovié 93 68.81 [59.84–77.1] Resistant
Kisumu 102 100 100 Susceptible
0.1% Propoxur Baguida 95 18.94 [10.3–26.95] Resistant
Kolokopé 97 97.93 [95.65–100.27] Suspected resistant
Kovié 89 73.03 [63.28–82.42] Resistant
Kisumu 98 100 100 Susceptible
1% Fenitrothion Baguida 94 20.21 [5.64–34.69] Resistant
Kolokopé 100 100 100 Susceptible
Kovié 103 98.05 [95.82–100.26] Susceptible
Kisumu 96 100 100 Susceptible
2013 5% Malathion Baguida 99 73.73 [59.79–88.33] Resistant
Kolokopé 90 100 100 Susceptible
Kovié 98 100 100 Susceptible
Kisumu 95 100 100 Susceptible
0.4% Chlorpyrisphos methyl Baguida 90 100 100 Susceptible
Kolokopé 95 100 100 Susceptible
Kovié 89 100 100 Susceptible
Kisumu 102 100 100 Susceptible
2016 4% DDT Baguida 121 1.61 [0.25–3.56] Resistant
Kolokopé 69 0 0 Resistant
Kovié 98 0 0 Resistant
Kisumu 101 100 100 Susceptible
0.05% Deltamethrin Baguida 123 17.03 [10.39–23.21] Resistant
Kolokopé 67 8.97 [0.66–16.01] Resistant
Kovié 91 4.4 [1.53–8.27] Resistant
Kisumu 92 100 100 Susceptible
0.75% Permethrin Baguida 72 0 0 Resistant
Kolokopé 93 10.75 [5.13–25.69] Resistant
Kovié 73 6.06 [1.81–14.58] Resistant
Kisumu 96 98.96 [96.48–101.14] Susceptible
0.05% Lambdacyhalothrin Baguida 121 16.53 [4.7–26.24] Resistant
Kolokopé 97 16.49 [7.22–26.04] Resistant
Kovié 88 2.27 [1.66–5.1] Resistant
Kisumu 90 98.89 [97.15–100.92] Susceptible
0.1% Bendiocarb Baguida 111 2.7 [0.95–4.55] Resistant
Kolokopé 82 68.29 [55.5–80.42] Resistant
Kovié 81 1.23 [0.92–2.85] Resistant
Kisumu 87 98.85 [95.65–101.41] Susceptible
0.1% Propoxur Baguida 75 6.67 [1.37–11.46] Resistant
Kolokopé 89 71.91 [64.86–80.37] Resistant
Kovié 99 8.08 [4.58–10.67] Resistant
Kisumu 83 98.80 [95.38–101.5] Susceptible
1% Fenitrothion Baguida 101 47.52 [25.39–69.81] Resistant
Kolokopé 89 100 100 Resistant
Kovié 87 82.76 [77.56–87.89] Résistant
Kisumu 95 100 100 Susceptible
5% Malathion Baguida 117 30.77 [28.18–33.08] Resistant
Kolokopé 89 100 100 Susceptible
Kovié 99 92.93 [84.66–98.9] Suspected resistant
Kisumu 83 98.80 [96.48–101.14] Susceptible
  1. N, number of mosquitoes; CI, confidence interval