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Table 2 Distribution of the sibling species of An. gambiae s.l. populations from Togo

From: Insecticide resistance profiles of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Togo and genetic mechanisms involved, during 3-year survey: is there any need for resistance management?

Study sites Geographic references Social environment Climatic areas Agricultural practices An. gambiae s.l. An. gambiae An. coluzzii Hybrids An. arabiensis
N N % N % N % N %
Baguida 2012 06°09′47″N–01°19′05″E Peri-urban Sub-equatorial Vegetables 177 176 99.44 0    1 0.56
Baguida 2013      112 100 89.29 8 7.14 1 0.89 3 2.68
Baguida 2016      18 9 50.00 9 50.00   
Kolokopé 2012 07°47′59″N-01°18′00″E Rural Sub-equatorial Cotton 81 80 98.77 0   1 1.23
Kolokopé 2013      274 138 50.36 136 49.64   
Kolokopé 2016      64 47 73.44 15 23.44   2 3.13
Kovié 2012 (06º34′38″N-01º11′47″E Rural Sub-equatorial Rice, vegetables 29 2 6.90 11 37.93 16 57.17 0
Kovié 2013      90 7 7.78 83 92.22   
Kovié 2016      69 0 62 89.86 6 8.70 1 1.45
Total      914 559 (61.61%) 324 (35.45%) 23 (2.51%) 8 (0.87%)