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Table 4 Temporal distribution of 1014F kdr frequency in An. gambiae s.l. populations from Togo

From: Insecticide resistance profiles of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Togo and genetic mechanisms involved, during 3-year survey: is there any need for resistance management?

Species Year N Genotypes f (L1014F) [95% CI]
1014L 1014L 1014F
1014L 1014F 1014F
An. arabiensis 2012 2 0 0 2 0.98 [0.79–1.17]
2013 2 0 0 2 0.98 [0.79–1.17]
2016 3 0 0 3 0.98 [0.82–1.14]
An. coluzzii 2013 161 50 3 108 0.680 [0.61–0.75]
2016 85 1 1 83 0.982 [0.95–1.01]
An. gambiae 2012 202 0 0 202 0.98 [0.96–1.00]
2013 199 5 1 193 0.972 [0.95–0.99]
2016 35 0 0 35 0.98 [0.93–1.03]
  1. N, number of mosquitoes; f (L1014F), frequency of the L1014F allele; CI, confidence interval