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Table 5 Frequency of the L1014S knock down resistance (kdr) alleles of An. gambiae s.l. populations from Togo

From: Insecticide resistance profiles of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Togo and genetic mechanisms involved, during 3-year survey: is there any need for resistance management?

Species Agricultural practices Sites N Genotypes f (L1014S) [95% CI] p(HW)
1014L 1014L 1014S
1014L 1014S 1014S
An. arabiensis Vegetables BAG 2012 1 1 0 0 0.000
An. coluzzii Rice KOV 2013 13 13 0 0 0.000
An. gambiae Rice KOV 2013 3 3 0 0 0.000
Cotton KOL 2012 23 22 0 1 0.043 [0.00–0.13] 0.024
Vegetables BAG 2012 36 36 0 0 0.000
  BAG 2013 16 16 0 0 0.000
  1. KOV, Kovié; KOL, Kolokopé; BAG, Baguida; N, number of mosquitoes; f (L1014S), frequency of the L1014S resistant allele; CI, confidence interval; p(HW), probability of the exact test for goodness of fit Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium