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Table 4 Study sites where cumulative failure estimates exceeded 10% and 5% using K–M approach

From: Competing risk events in antimalarial drug trials in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network individual participant data meta-analysis

Study (site) N Number of events (RC/NI/IND) Day Drug \(\hat{F}_{KM} \left( t \right)\) estimate of recrudescence [95% confidence interval] \(\hat{F}_{CIF} \left( t \right)\) estimate of recrudescence [95% confidence interval]
10% thresholda
 Nikiema-2010 (Burkina Faso, Gourcy)b 144 12/28/3 28 AL 10.3 [4.8–15.8] 9.4 [4.3–14.5]
 The 4ABC Trial (Burkina Faso, Nanoro) [18] 294 24/142/9 28 AL 11.1 [6.8–15.4] 8.6 [5.3–11.8]
 Sirima-2015 (Burkina Faso, Balonghin) [21] 66 31/5/0 63 ASMQ 11.5 [7.2–15.9] 8.1 [1.2–14.9]
5% thresholda
 Yeka-2008 (Uganda, Kanungu) [45] 199 9/49/6 42 AL 5.2 [1.9–8.5] 4.6 [1.7–7.6]
 Sirima-2015 (Tanzania, Korogwe) [21] 27 1/3/2 63 AL 5.0 [0.0–14.6] 4.3 [0.0–12.9]
 Schramm-2013 (Liberia, Nimba) [46] 145 7/45/6 42 AL 5.6 [1.5–9.7] 5.0 [1.4–8.6]
 Agrawal-2013 (Kenya, Siaya) [47] 136 5/48/12 42 AL 5.2 [0.5–10.0] 4.2 [0.6–7.8]
 Karunajeewa-2008 (PNG, Madang) [48] 54 2/20/0 42 AL 5.9 [0.0–14.3] 4.7 [0.0–11.3]
 Sirima-2015 (Kenya, Kisumu) [21] 99 4/23/9 63 ASMQ 6.1 [0.1–12.0] 4.8 [0.2–9.4]
 Sirima-2015 (Burkina Faso, Balonghin) [21] 128 5/58/1 63 AL 5.4 [0.7–10.2] 4.0 [0.6–7.5]
 Bukirwa-2006 (Uganda, Tororo) [49] 204 10/89/2 28 AL 6.6 [2.6–10.7] 4.9 [2.0–8.0]
 Sirima-2015 (Kenya, Ahero) [21] 73 3/28/10 63 ASMQ 7.8 [0.0–16.7] 4.7[0.0–10.0]
  1. N study sample size, RC recrudescence, NI new infection, IND indeterminate outcomes, \(\hat{F}_{KM} \left( t \right)\) cumulative failure estimates derived using 1 minus Kaplan–Meier method, \(\hat{F}_{CIF} \left( t \right)\) cumulative failure estimates derived using Cumulative Incidence Function, AL artemether–lumefantrine, ASMQ artesunate–mefloquine
  2. a The 10% threshold is used by the WHO for determining whether the current regimen should be continued to be used as a first line therapy and 5% threshold is used for introducing a new regimen as a first line treatment [50]
  3. b Unpublished study