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Table 1 Demographic characteristics and factors associated with P. falciparum transmission in Sabang, Indonesia, 2013

From: Analysis of serological data to investigate heterogeneity of malaria transmission: a community-based cross-sectional study in an area conducting elimination in Indonesia

Variable (n = 1624) Total P. falciparum seropositive Bivariate Multivariable
N (%) n % (95% CI) OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
Age (years)
 < 15 years old 656 (40.39) 8 1.2 (0.6–2.4) 1 1
 24 years old 270 (16.63) 19 7.0 (4.5–10.8) 6.13 (2.65–14.17)** 5.69 (2.43–13.37)**
 25–40 years old 347 (21.37) 45 13.0 (9.8–16.9) 12.07 (5.63–25.88)** 12.05 (5.59–25.94)**
 > 40 years old 351 (21.61) 40 11.4 (8.5–15.2) 10.4 2 (4.83–22.48)** 10.27 (4.74–22.27)**
Gender
 Female 984 (60.55) 71 7.2 (5.8–9.0) 1  
 Male 641 (39.45) 41 6.4 (4.7–8.6) 0.88 (0.59–1.31)  
P. vivax seropositive
 No 1592 (98.03) 104 6.5 (5.4–7.9) 1 1
 Yes 32 (1.97) 8 25.0 (12.9–42.9) 4.77 (2.09–10.88)** 3.47 (1.48–8.12)**
Residence
 Sukakarya 603 (37.13) 40 6.6 (4.9–8.9) 1  
 Sukajaya 1021 (62.87) 72 7.1 (5.6–8.8) 1.07 (0.72–1.59)  
Education
 None 3 (0.34) 0 0 1  
 Primary education 764 (86.33) 85 10.9 (8.9–13.2) 0.98 (0.53–1.83)  
 Higher education 118 (13.33) 13 11.0 (6.5–18.1) 1  
Employment
 Unemployed 516 (57.33) 58 11.2 (8.8–14.3) 1  
 Non-office-based job 215 (23.89) 27 12.6 (8.7–17.7) 1.13 (0.70–1.85)  
 Office-based job 105 (11.67) 9 8.6 (4.5–15.7) 0.74 (0.35–1.55)  
 Student 64 (7.11) 5 7.8 (3.3–17.6) 0.67 (0.26–1.74)  
LLIN use
 No 1098 (68.28) 63 5.7 (4.5–7.3) 1 1
 Yes 510 (31.72) 48 9.4 (7.2–12.3) 1.71 (1.16–2.52)** 1.80 (1.20–2.72)**
IRS last 12 months
 No 1376 (84.83) 93 6.8 (5.6–8.2) 1  
 Yes 246 (15.17) 19 7.7 (5.0–11.8) 1.15 (0.69–1.93)  
Fever
 No 1483 (91.26) 102 6.9 (5.7–8.3) 1  
 Yes 142 (8.74) 10 7.0 (3.8–12.6) 1.03 (0.52–2.01)  
Altitude (m)
 < 120 716 (50.46) 50 7.0 (5.3–9.1) 1  
 > 120 703 (49.54) 44 6.3 (4.7–8.3) 0.89 (0.99–1.00)  
  1. * p value < 0.05, ** p value < 0.01. Individual level data: age, gender, education status, employment status and fever. Household level data: LLIN use, IRS in last 12 months and altitude