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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analysis of the risk factors for malaria in children in the Lake endemic region in Kenya

From: Targeting remaining pockets of malaria transmission in Kenya to hasten progress towards national elimination goals: an assessment of prevalence and risk factors in children from the Lake endemic region

Covariables Multivariate analysis
Unadjusted Adjusted
OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
Age groups
 0–5 years 1 (Reference)   1  
 5–10 years 2.03 (1.56–2.65) <0.001 2.20 (1.69–2.87) < 0.001
 10–14 years 2.63 (1.93–3.58) <0.001 3.04 (2.26–4.10) < 0.001
Child’s gender
 Male 1    
 Female 0.95 (0.80–1.12) 0.330   
Gender—household head
 Male 1   1  
 Female 0.73 (0.53–1.01) 0.058 0.70 (0.51–0.96) 0.030
Education—household head
 No 1   1  
 Yes 0.78 (0.58–1.06) 0.115 0.88 (0.69–1.13) 0.320
Wealth Index—SES
 Poorest 3.54 (1.93–6.50) <0.001 2.06 (1.30–3.27) 0.003
 Poorer 2.52 (1.49–4.26) 0.001 1.50 (0.93–2.41) 0.091
 Middle 2.24 (1.45–3.46) 0.001 1.50 (0.99–2.29) 0.054
 Rich 1   1  
Bed–net ownership
 Owns a bed net 0.67 (0.41–1.08) 0.101 0.74 (0.44–1.24) 0.251
 Slept under LLIN 0.63 (0.47–0.85) 0.004 0.69 (0.55–0.87) 0.002
Floor material
 Modern 1   1  
 Traditional 3.12 (2.58–3.78) <0.001 1.62 (1.08–2.45) 0.039
Main wall material
 Modern 1   1  
 Traditional 2.66 (2.19–3.23) <0.001 1.64 (0.88–2.96) 0.115
Roofing material     
 Modern 1   1  
 Traditional 2.52 (1.90–3.34) <0.001 1.54 (1.02–2.34) 0.042
Source of water
 Piped 1    
 Wells/boreholes 1.32 (0.70–2.47) 0.378   
 River/canal 1.33 (0.77–2.31) 0.302   
 Does not practice agriculture 1   1  
 Practices agriculture 2.34 (1.64–3.34) < 0.001 1.76 (1.23–2.52) 0.003
 Does not own a livestock 1   1  
 Owns livestock 1.33 (0.98–1.81) 0.064 1.01 (0.74–1.39) 0.941
Residence
 Urban 1   1  
 Rural 2.88 (1.40–5.92) 0.005 1.68 (0.96–2.95) 0.059
Counties
 Bungoma 1   1  
 Siaya 2.45 (1.25–4.78) 0.010 3.40 (1.70–6.83) 0.001
 Kisumu 1.64 (0.54–5.00) 0.378 2.58 (0.87–7.61) 0.085
 Migori 2.54 (0.87–7.42) 0.086 4.64 (2.09–10.30) < 0.001
 Homabay 1.63 (0.84–3.16) 0.144 2.18 (1.13–4.24) 0.022
 Kakamega 2.61 (1.18–5.79) 0.019 2.65 (1.29–5.43) 0.009
 Vihiga 1.41 (0.45–3.25) 0.698 1.40 (0.48–4.07) 0.532
 Busia 4.09 (1.91–8.75) 0.001 4.12 (2.07–8.19) < 0.001
  1. SES: Socio-economic status, P values less than 0.05 are highlighted in italics