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Table 1 Frequencies of haplotypes found during the transmission periods 2014–2016 (May 2014–April 2017), p-values are from Fisher’s exact test for trend over time

From: Proof of concept: used malaria rapid diagnostic tests applied for parallel sequencing for surveillance of molecular markers of anti-malarial resistance in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau during 2014–2017

Frequencies of haplotypes
GeneHaplotype201420152016p-value (trend)
18S success 76% (n = 228)80% (n = 676)66% (n = 486) 
pfcrtc. 72-76CVMNK (wildtype)67% (45/67)60% (187/311)45% (99/219)0.006
CVIET (mutant)33% (22/67)40% (124/311)55% (120/219)0.006
pfmdr1c. 86 + 184NF57% (43/75)73% (212/290)62% (116/187)0.052
NY29% (22/75)23% (68/290)29% (55/187)0.052
YF11% (8/75)3% (9/290)9% (16/187)0.084
YY3% (2/75)0% (1/290)0% (0/187)0.109
pfdhfrc. 51 + 59 + 108NCS (wildtype)17% (14/82)4% (18/407)4% (17/443)0.001
IRN (triple mutant)73% (60/82)92% (373/407)85% (376/443)0.001
pfdhpsc. 436 + 437 + 540 + 581 + 613AAKAA (wildtype)25% (17/68)25% (23/93)23% (39/170)0.956
AGKAA (mutant)15% (10/68)6% (6/93)11% (19/170)0.439
SAKAA (wildtype)26% (18/68)29% (27/93)21% (36/170)0.083
SGKAA (mutant)34% (23/68)38% (35/93)43% (73/170)0.448
pfdhfrc. 51 + 59 + 108 + pfdhpsc. 437IRN + G (quadruple mutant)33% (16/49)49% (97/199)51% (94/185)0.072
  1. Mixed infections were omitted from haplotype analysis