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Table 6 Univariate and multivariate logistic regression estimates of the socio-demographic predictors of appropriate dispensing practices of dispensers

From: Dispensing practices for anti-malarials in the La Nkwantanang-Madina municipality, Greater Accra, Ghana: a cross-sectional study

CharacteristicsCrude OR (95% CI)p-valueAdjusted OR (95% CI)p-value
Age group
 15–24 (reference)1 1
 25–340.80 (0.24–2.72)0.7141.97 (0.31–12.61)0.465
 35–440.63 (0.17–2.32)0.4827.76 (0.89–67.37)0.063
 > 452.82 (0.53–15.10)0.21815.23 (25.91–5893.9)0.001*
Sex
 Male (reference)1   
 Female1.08 (0.57–2.07)0.800.95 (0.35–2.64)0.927
Educational level
 None (reference)1 1
 Primary1 (omitted)1 (omitted)
 Secondary7.83e−78.5e−7 (4.3e−8–1.7e−5)0.001*
 Tertiary7.03e−79.2e−7 (5.4e−8–1.6e−5)0.001*
 Vocational/technical3.36e−75.8e−6 (1.22e−7–3e−4)0.001*
Professional category
 Pharmacist (reference)1 1
 MCA1.03 (0.33–3.22)0.9521.64 (0.43–6.25)0.461
 Pharm. Technician3.21 (0.42–24.71)0.2551.90 (0.39–9.33)0.421
 Pharm. Intern3.93 (0.53–29.08)0.17618.5 (1.40–245.6)0.03*
 Other1.61 (0.54–4.75)0.3834.91 (0.40–60.40)0.208
Marital status
 Single11
 Married0.49 (0.25–0.99)0.047*0.20 (0.040–1.01)0.051
NHIS status
 Have NHIS (reference)1 1 
 Don’t have NHIS0.52 (0.27–0.99)0.050*0.41 (0.12–1.07)0.067
Access to wall chart   
 Yes1  
 No2.30 (0.85–6.23)0.103.32 (0.85–13.00)0.082
Experience   
 < 2 years (reference)1  
 3–5 years0.53 (0.19–1.49)0.2190.47 (0.09–2.36)0.348
 6–9 years0.53 (0.15–1.92)0.3280.25 (0.026–2.50)0.209
 > 10 years0.43 (0.10–1.75)0.2310.04 (0.002–0.802)0.036*
Awareness of guidelines
 Aware (reference)1   
 Unaware0.37 (0.15–0.86)0.022*0.45 (0.16–1.24)0.122
Access to reference material
 Yes1  
 No2.30 (1.14–4.63)0.020*2.10 (0.61–7.20)0.240
Supervisory visits
 Once11 
 Twice2.42 (1.15–5.06)0.020*1.35 (0.38–4.84)0.636
 Three times0.73 (0.25–2.08)0.5430.51 (0.12–2.14)0.345
 > Three1 (omitted)1 (omitted)
 Can’t remember1.16 (0.55–2.50)0.6881 (omitted)
Recommender
 Dispenser11
 Relative3.00 (1.18–7.68)0.022*7.40 (1.03–53.41)0.047*
 Friend1 (omitted)1 (omitted)
 Self0.50 (0.25–0.99)0.046*0.20 (0.07–0.53)0.002*
 Media1 (omitted)1 (omitted) 
 Unspecified1.79 (0.66–4.85)0.2483.22 (0.78–13.35)0.104
  1. Statistically significant associations are marked with *
  2. OR odds ratio