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Table 2 Associations between Plasmodium falciparum infection at antenatal enrolment and miscarriage/stillbirth, low birthweight, preterm birth and fetal growth restriction

From: Microscopic and submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum infection, maternal anaemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Papua New Guinea: a cohort study

Infection status % (N/N total) Adjusted odds ratio 95% confidence interval P
Miscarriage/stillbirtha (n = 2190)
 No infection 2.2 (44/1976)    
 Submicroscopic infection 1.8 (2/111) 0.81 (0.19, 3.41) 0.77
 Microscopic infection 3.9 (4/103) 1.96 (0.68, 5.66) 0.22
Low birthweightb (n = 1976)
 No infection 15.1 (270/1786)    
 Submicroscopic infection 14.3 (14/98) 1.01 (0.55, 1.84) 0.98
 Microscopic infection 18.5 (17/92) 0.97 (0.54, 1.75) 0.93
Preterm birthc (n = 1294)
 No infection 8.9 (105/1181)    
 Submicroscopic infection 1.7 (1/60) 0.17 (0.02, 1.26) 0.08
 Microscopic infection 11.3 (6/53) 1.22 (0.49, 1.26) 0.67
Small for gestational ageb (n = 1294)
 No infection 24.5 (289/1181)    
 Submicroscopic infection 33.3 (20/60) 1.65 (0.93, 2.92) 0.09
 Microscopic infection 20.8 (11/53) 0.71 (0.35, 1.43) 0.34
  1. a Adjusted for treatment arm, gravidity, enrolment clinic, bed net use, undernutrition, stunting, ethnicity and socio-economic status
  2. b Adjusted for treatment arm, gender of the baby, gravidity, number of study visits, enrolment clinic, bed net use, nutritional status, stunting, socio-economic status and timing of birthweight measurement
  3. c Adjusted for treatment arm, gender of the baby, gravidity, number of study visits, enrolment clinic, bed net use, nutritional status, stunting, and socio-economic status