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Table 3 Association of microscopic and submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum infection at delivery in maternal peripheral venous blood and placental blood with low birthweight, preterm birth and fetal growth restriction

From: Microscopic and submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum infection, maternal anaemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Papua New Guinea: a cohort study

Infection status % (N/N total) Adjusted odds ratio 95% confidence interval P
P. falciparum infection at delivery (peripheral blood)
 Low birthweighta (n = 1878)
  No infection 15.0 (272/1812)    
  Submicroscopic infection 17.2 (5/29) 1.00 (0.35, 2.83) 0.99
  Microscopic infection 29.7 (11/37) 2.75 (1.27, 5.94) 0.010
 Preterm birthb (n = 1229)
  No infection 8.2 (97/1190)    
  Submicroscopic infection 5.9 (1/17) 0.54 (0.07, 4.29) 0.56
  Microscopic infection 31.8 (7/22) 6.58 (2.46, 17.62) < 0.001
 Small for gestational agea (n = 1229)
  No infection 24.1 (287/1190)    
  Submicroscopic infection 29.4 (5/17) 1.32 (0.44, 3.96) 0.63
  Microscopic infection 31.8 (7/22) 1.71 (0.67, 4.39) 0.26
P. falciparum infection at delivery (placental blood)
 Low birthweighta (n = 1272)
  No infection 13.8 (170/1228)    
  Submicroscopic infection 28.6 (4/14) 2.85 (0.82, 9.91) 0.10
  Microscopic infection 30.0 (9/30) 2.08 (0.87, 4.98) 0.10
 Preterm birthb (n = 781)
  No infection 6.9 (52/749)    
  Submicroscopic infection 18.2 (2/11) 3.34 (0.66, 16.83) 0.15
  Microscopic infection 19.1 (4/21) 3.04 (0.89, 10.3) 0.08
 Small for gestational agea (n = 781)
  No infection 21.4 (160/749)    
  Submicroscopic infection 36.4 (4/11) 2.60 (0.71, 9.56) 0.15
  Microscopic infection 33.3 (7/21) 1.62 (0.61, 4.34) 0.34
  1. a Adjusted for treatment arm, gender of the baby, gravidity, number of study visits, enrolment clinic, bed net use, nutritional status, stunting, socio-economic status and timing of birthweight measurement
  2. b Adjusted for treatment arm, gender of the baby, gravidity, number of study visits, enrolment clinic, bed net use, nutritional status, stunting, and socio-economic status