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Table 2 Association between maternal parasitaemia and malaria risk in infancy stratified by outcome measure

From: Impact of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy on the risk of malaria in infants: a systematic review

Author, year of publication (refs.) Timing of measurement of maternal parasitaemia Method used to detect maternal parasitaemia Exposure groups (n) Measure of association (95% CI), p value Confounders adjusted for
Prevalence of parasitaemia
 Boudova, 2017 [40] 2nd and 3rd trimester PCR Unexposed (n = 184) Reference Maternal age, gestation age at delivery, IPTp arm
Exposed (n = 28) OR = 1.5 (0.5–4.4), p = 0.45
 De Beaudrap, 2016 [37] 2nd and 3rd trimester Microscopy or RDT Unexposed (n = 626) Reference Gravidity, birth season, haemoglobin genotype, residence
Exposed (n = 198) RR = 2.97 (1.37–6.42), p = NR
 Borgella, 2013 [18] 1st trimester Microscopy Unexposed (n = NA) Reference Residence near the lake, birth season
Exposed (n = NA) OR = 1.12 (0.23–5.45), p = 0.89
2nd trimester Microscopy Unexposed (n = 142) Reference
Exposed (n = 52) OR = 0.87 (0.35–2.09), p = 0.75
3rd trimester Microscopy Unexposed (n = 121) Reference
Exposed (n = 73) OR = 4.16 (1.64–10.54), p = 0.003
Time to first parasitaemia
 Borgella, 2013 [18] 1st trimester Microscopy Unexposed (n = NA) Reference Residence near the lake, birth season
Exposed (n = NA) HR = 1.00 (0.42–2.39), p = 0.99
2nd trimester Microscopy Unexposed (n = 142) Reference
Exposed (n = 52) HR = 1.14 (0.62–2.12), p = 0.68
3rd trimester Microscopy Unexposed (n = 121) Reference
Exposed (n = 73) HR = 2.95 (1.58–5.50), p = 0.001
Time to first clinical malaria
 Borgella, 2013 [18] 1st trimester Microscopy Unexposed (n = NA) Reference Residence near the lake, birth season
Exposed (n = NA) HR = 0.97 (0.32–2.92), p = 0.95
2nd trimester Microscopy Unexposed (n = 142) Reference
Exposed (n = 52) HR = 1.15 (0.58–2.28), p = 0.70
3rd trimester Microscopy Unexposed (n = 121) Reference
Exposed (n = 73) HR = 3.19 (1.59–6.38), p = 0.001
Incidence of clinical malaria
 Ndibazza, 2013 [39] Baseline and delivery Microscopy Unexposed (n = 2053) Ref Maternal age, ITN possession, parity, education, social economic status, residence, mother’s HIV status
Exposed (n = 236) HR = 1.23 (1.01–1.51), p = 0.04
  1. CI confidence interval, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, HR hazard ratio, IPTp intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, ITN insecticide treated net, NA not applicable number was imputed, NR not reported, OR odds ratio, RDT rapid diagnostic test, RR risk ratio, PCR polymerase chain reaction