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Table 3 Association between placental malaria detected by microscopy and the risk of malaria in infancy stratified by outcome

From: Impact of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy on the risk of malaria in infants: a systematic review

Country, year of publication (ref) PM exposure group (n) Measure of association (95% CI), p-value Confounders adjusted for
Prevalence of parasitaemia
 De Beaudrap, 2016 [37] Unexposed (475) Reference Gravidity, maternal age, residence, level of education, season, maternal HIV status, ITN use
Exposed (15) RR = 10.42 (2.64–41.10), p = NR
 Borgella, 2013 [18] Unexposed (154 Reference Residence near the lake, birth season
Exposed (36) OR = 0.72 (0.25–2.11), p = 0.55
Time to first parasitaemia
 Tassi Yunga, 2018a [34] No PM (36) Reference Gravidity, birth season Hb genotype, residence
PM Lo (18) HR = 2.6 (1.3–4.8)
PM Hi (18) HR = 1.5 (0.7–3.7)
 Borgella, 2013 [18] Unexposed (154) Reference Residence near the lake, birth season
Exposed (36) HR = 0.68 (0.34–1.38), p = 0.29
 Le Port, 2011 [35] Unexposed (485) Reference Unadjusted
Exposed (59) HR = 1.62 (1.08–2.43), p = 0.02
 Le Port, 2011 [35] Unexposed, had ITN (321) Reference Exposure to anopheles, season, antenatal care, severe anaemia
Exposed, had ITN (34) HR = 2.13 (1.24–3.67), p < 0.01
Unexposed, no ITN (158) Reference
Exposed, no ITN (25) HR = 1.18 (0.60–2.33), p = 0.62
 Mutabingwa, 2005 [21] Unexposed (384) Reference Gravidity, residence, transmission season at birth, and bed net usage
Exposed (69) HR = 1.41 (1.01–1.99), p = NR
Time to first clinical malaria
 Borgella, 2013 [18] Unexposed (154) Reference Residence near the lake, birth season
Exposed (36) HR = 0.60 (0.28–1.32), p = 0.21
 Schwarz, 2008 [17] Unexposed (477) Reference Gravidity, residence, birth season, IPTi, bed net use
Exposed (50) HR = 2.1 (1.2–3.7), p = NR
  1. CI confidence interval, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, HR hazard ratio, IPTi intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infancy, ITN insecticide treated net, NR Not reported, OR odds ratio, PM placental malaria, RR risk ratio
  2. aPlacental malaria detected by microscopy or PCR; PM Lo, placental malaria with < 25 infected erythrocytes/µL; PM Hi, placental malaria with > 25 infected erythrocytes/µL