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Table 4 Association between placental malaria detected by histology and the risk of malaria in infancy stratified by outcome

From: Impact of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy on the risk of malaria in infants: a systematic review

Country, year of publication (ref) Placental malaria exposure group (n) Measure of association (95% CI), p-value Confounders adjusted for
Clinical malaria
 Boudova, 2017 [40] Unexposed (184) Reference Maternal age, gestation age at delivery, IPTp arm
Exposed (67) OR = 3.9 (1.2–13.0), p = 0.03
 Boudova, 2017 [40] Unexposed (184) Reference Unadjusted
Exposed (67) IRR = 2.3 (1.1–4.8), p = NR
 Sylvester, 2016 [41] Unexposed (165) Reference Gravity, season of birth, infant birth weight, maternal age
Exposed (41) OR = 4.79 (2.21–10.38), p < 0.05
 Awine, 2016 [19] Unexposed (484) Reference ITN use, gender, social economic status, living near an irrigated area, infant age, maternal baseline parasitaemia
Exposed (202) IRR = 0.86 (0.54–1.37), p = 0.52
 Apinjoh, 2015 [36] Unexposed (n = 237) Reference Not indicated
Exposed (n = 166) OR = 0.72 (0.40–1.28), p = 0.26
 Bardaji, 2011 [16] Unexposed (424) Reference Residence near the lake, birth season
Past infection (321) OR = 3.06 (1.94–4.82), p < 0.001
Acute infection (42) OR = 4.63 (2.10–10.24), p < 0.001
Chronic infection (82) OR = 3.95 (2.07–10.24), p < 0.001
Prevalence of parasitaemia
 Boudova, 2017 [40] Unexposed (184) Reference Maternal age, gestation age at delivery, IPTp arm
Exposed (67) OR = 2.5 (1.0–6.3), p = 0.06
  1. CI confidence interval, IPTp intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, IRR, incident rate ratio, ITN insecticide treated net, NR not reported, OR odds ratio