Skip to main content

Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 3 Comparison of wild type and mutant frequencies of P. falciparum in mosquito samples using Sanger sequencing and NGS

From: Mosquitoes as a feasible sentinel group for anti-malarial resistance surveillance by Next Generation Sequencing of Plasmodium falciparum

Gene Sanger sequencing of mosquito samples NGS of mosquito samplesa Sequenced samples by both methods p-value
Wild type % Mutant % Mixture % Wild type % Mutant %
K13
 Y493H R539T I543T C580Y 100 0 0 100 0 66 1
pfcrt
 CVMNK (72–76) 100 0 0 100 0 93 1
pfmdr1 F1
 N86Y/F 98.8 0 1.2 100 0 81 3.44 × 10−4
 Y184F 46.9 21.0 32.1 50.3 49.3 0.59
pfmdr1 F2
 S1034C N1042D D1246Y 100 0 0 100 0 70 1
pfdhps F1
 S436F/A 100 0 0 100 0 86 1
 A437G 2.3 95.3 2.3 0 100 1.32 × 10−7
pfdhps F2
 K540E 2.3 96.6 1.1 6.2 93.7 87 0.17
A581G A613T/S 100 0 0 100 0 1
pfdhfr
 C50R/S 99 1.0 0 100 0 95 1.64 × 10−4
 N51I 0 100 0 0.9 98.4 1
 C59R 3.2 32.6 64.2 3.6 96.3 1
 S108N 0 100 0 0.3 96.3 1
 164L 100 0 0 100 0 1
  1. Fisher’s exact test was utilized for all comparisons except for pfmdr1 position Y184F, for which χ-squared test was performed. Sanger sequencing mixtures were assumed as mutant for statistical calculations. F1: fragment 1. F2: fragment 2. Wild-type haplotypes are indicated on the left and mutant amino acids on the right of the position number (see Additional file 1: Tables S5 and S7)
  2. aNGS allele frequency estimates were calculated by dividing individual unfiltered allele depth by total filtered depth, hence total values do not always add up to 100 (see “Methods” section) [61]