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Table 6 Antiplasmodial effectiveness of synthesized nanoparticles

From: A systematic review on anti-malarial drug discovery and antiplasmodial potential of green synthesis mediated metal nanoparticles: overview, challenges and future perspectives

Authors [Reference] Results on effectiveness of NPs Results on used controls
Panneerselvam et al. [47] Parasite growth inhibition rate ranged from 26% (25 µg/mL) to 83% (100 µg/mL)
IC50 = 50 µg/mL
Not computable
Ponarulselvam et al. [48] Parasite growth inhibition rate ranged from 20% (25 µg/mL) to 75% (100 µg/mL)
IC50 = 63.64 µg/mLa
Not computable
Kharthik et al. [61] Nearly 40% inhibition was observed at dose 8 mg/kg/bw Not computable
Mishra et al. [49] IC50 = 8 µg/mL (Ashoka) IC50 = 0.5 µg/mL (AgNO3)
IC50 = 30 µg/mL (Neem) No activity up to 40 µg/mL (extract)
Panneerselvam et al. [50] Parasite growth inhibition rate ranged from 26.2% (20 µg/mL) to 100% (100 µg/mL)
IC50 = 51.46 µg/mLa
Not computable
Rajakumar et al. [51] IC20 = 4.34 µg/mL, IC50 = 8.704 µg/mL, IC90 = 18.49 µg/mL AE: IC20 = 1.90, IC50 = 10.29 and IC90 = 64.11 µg/mL
Pd(AcO)2: IC20 = 4.49, IC50 = 9.84 and IC90 = 23.046 µg/mL
Murugan et al. [52] IC50 = 76.33 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 79.13 µg/mL (INDO) CQ: IC50 = 80 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 85 µg/mL (INDO)
Jaganathan et al. [62] IC50 = 49.3 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 55.5 µg/mL (INDO) CQ: IC50 = 81.5 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 86.5 µg/mL (INDO)
Subramaniam et al. [53] IC50 = 69.47 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 76.33 µg/mL (INDO) CQ: IC50 = 80 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 90 µg/mL (INDO)
AE: IC50 = 43.21 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 51.16 µg/mL (INDO)
Panneerselvam et al. [54] IC50 = 78.12 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 88.34 µg/mL (INDO) CQ: IC50 = 85 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 90 µg/mL (INDO)
AE: IC50 = 62.04 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 71.16 µg/mL (INDO)
Murugan et al. [55] IC50 = 72.45 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 76.08 µg/mL (INDO) CQ: IC50 = 80 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 85 µg/mL (INDO)
AE: IC50 = 51.34 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 65.17 µg/mL (INDO)
Murugan et al. [56] Parasite growth inhibition rate ranged from 6.4 to 42.8%
IC50 = 63.18 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 69.24 µg/mL (INDO) 
CQ: Parasite growth reduced from 51.2% up to 53.6%
IC50 = 90 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 98.5 µg/mL (INDO)
AE: Parasite growth reduced from 15.2% up to 58.6%
IC50 = 82.41 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 86.12 µg/mL (INDO)
Dutta et al. [57] AgNP: IC50 = 24.22 ± 2.44 µg/mL (Bark, 3D7)
IC50 = 29.09 ± 2.54 µg/mL (Bark, Dd2)
IC50 = 28.97 ± 3.21 µg/mL (Leaf, 3D7)
IC50 = 34.49 ± 1.42 µg/mL (Leaf, Dd2)
AE: IC50 = 43.49 ± 3.23 µg/mL (Bark, 3D7)
IC50 = 47.66 ± 3.97 µg/mL (Bark, Dd2)
IC50 = 51.70 ± 1.29 µg/mL (Leaf, 3D7)
IC50 = 53.37 ± 2.86 µg/mL (Leaf, Dd2)
AuNP: IC50 = 49.54 ± 2.34 µg/mL (Bark, 3D7)
IC50 = 51.63 ± 2.55 µg/mL (Bark, Dd2)
IC50 = 45.49 ± 1.40 µg/mL (Leaf, 3D7)
IC50 = 49.38 ± 3.04 µg/mL (Leaf, Dd2)
CQ: IC50 = 0.371 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 1.8 µg/mL (Dd2)
Murugan et al. [63] IC50 = 83.32 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 87.47 µg/mL (INDO) CQ: IC50 = 92 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 96 µg/mL (INDO)
Sardana et al. [58] IC50 = 0.313 to 1.692 µM (3D7) Not applicable
Gandhi et al. [59] IC50 = 53.42 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 59.71 µg/mL (INDO) CQ: IC50 = 0.021 µg/mL (3D7), IC50 = 0.258 µg/mL (INDO)
Rotimi et al. [60] NPs were inactive against malaria parasites (% viability < 20%) Not specified
  1. NPs nanoparticles, AgNPs silver nanoparticles, AuNPs gold nanoparticles, IC20 20% inhibitory concentration, IC50 50% inhibitory concentration, IC90 90% inhibitory concentration, CQ chloroquine, AE aqueous extract
  2. aIC50 was calculated using data coming from the study