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Table 7 Evaluation of toxicity of nanoparticles synthesized

From: A systematic review on anti-malarial drug discovery and antiplasmodial potential of green synthesis mediated metal nanoparticles: overview, challenges and future perspectives

Authors [Reference] Used methods Results
Kharthik et al. [61] Brine shrimp lethality assay No toxicity up to 8 mg/kg/bw
Histological analysis Tissue damages were reported at doses 12, 16 and 20 mg/kg/bw
Search for any signs of toxicity Deaths, behavioural changes, changes in physical appearance observed at doses 8, 12, 16 and 20 mg/kg/bw
Mishra et al. [49] Haemolysis assay No signs of haemolysis up to 40 µg/mL (MHC10 > 40 µg/mL)
Rajakumar et al. [51] MTT assay using Hep-G2 cell line Cellular toxicity (necrosis and cytopathic effects) of 8.5%, 24%, 48%, 65% and 76.5% at doses 1, 10, 100, 250 and 500 µg/mL respectively (more toxic than Pd (OAc)2 and plant extract)
Jaganathan et al. [62] MTT assay using Hep-G2 cell line Viability of Hep-G2 cells decreased when tested doses of NPs increased (IC50 = 25.96 µg/mL)
Apoptosis assay NPs induced apoptosis which increased significantly from 1.6 to 7.8% at doses 1.88 µg/mL and 30 µg/mL respectively
Dutta et al. [57] MTT assay using HeLa and L6 lines Insignificant toxicity against the both cell lines (IC50 > 200 µg/mL and > 250 µg/mL)
Gandhi et al. [59] Non-target organism assay NPs did not exhibit any noticeable toxicity on Poecilia reticulata after 24 h of exposure
Rotimi et al. [60] Keusch et al. assay using HeLa lines NPs were not toxic (% cell viability 89.66% ± 1.55%)
  1. NPs nanoparticles, IC50 50% inhibitory concentration, bw body weight, MHC10 minimum haemolytic concentration resulting in 10% haemolysis, PBMCs peripheral mononuclear cells, MTT 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide