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Table 2 Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the study population according to disease severity

From: Hypertension is associated with an increased risk for severe imported falciparum malaria: a tertiary care hospital based observational study from Berlin, Germany

CharacteristicNo. (%) of patientsP valueaOR (95% CI)
Total (n = 536)Non severe malaria (n = 468)Severe malaria (n = 68)Unadjustedb
Age, y
 Median (range)37 (18–78)37 (18–78)39 (19–71)0.071.023 (1.002–1.045)
Gender
 Male368 (68.7)324 (69.2)44 (64.7)0.4521 (Ref)
 Female168 (31.3)144 (30.8)24 (35.3) 1.227 (0.719–2.095)
Origin
 Endemic329 (61.4)292 (62.4)37 (54.4)0.2071 (Ref)
 Non-endemic country207 (38.6)176 (37.6)31 (45.6) 1.390 (0.833–2.321)
Previous malaria episodes
 History of ≥ 1 previous malaria episodes163 (30.4)153 (32.7)10 (14.7)0.0031 (Ref)
 No history of previous malaria373 (69.6)315 (67.3)58 (85.3) 2.817 (1.401–5.665)
Use of chemoprophylaxis
 Regular use15 (2.8)14 (3.0)1 (1.5)0.4371 (Ref)
 Irregular/lack of use426 (79.5)368 (78.6)58 (85.3) 2.207 (0.285–17.11)
 Missing95 (17.7)86 (18.4)9 (13.2)  
Season
 Fall116 (21.6)103 (22.0)13 (19.1)0.4501 (Ref)
 Winter117 (21.8)100 (21.4)17 (25.0) 1.35 (0.66–2.92)
WHO region
 African region508 (94.8)446 (95.3)62 (91.2)0.1531 (Ref)
 Southeast Asian region16 (3.0)10 (2.1)6 (8.8%)0.0034.37 (1.53–12.43)
 Region of the Americas4 (0.7)4 (0.9)0 (0.0)
 European region1 (0.2)1 (0.2)0 (0.0)
 Eastern Mediterranean region4 (0.7)4 (0.8)0 (0.0)
 Missing2 (0.4)2 (0.4)0 (0.0)
Reason of travel
 Occupational92 (17.2)84 (18.0)8 (11.8)0.2061 (Ref)
 Visiting friends and relatives131 (24.4)114 (24.4)17 (25.0)0.911.566 (0.645–3.800)
 Tourism86 (16.0)66 (14.1)20 (29.4)0.0013.182 (1.318–7.681)
 Refugee2 (0.4)2 (0.4) 
 Missing225 (42.0)202 (43.2)23 (33.8)  
Patient delay, d
 Median (range)4 (0–68)4 (0–68)5 (0–11)0.8161.00 (0.96–1.06)
 0–126 (4.7)24 (5.0)2 (2.4)0.29191 (Ref)
 2–3194 (34.8)169 (35.6)25 (30.1)0.33531.78 (0.40–7.98)
 ≥ 4255 (45.7)206 (43.4)49 (59.0)0.00822.85 (0.65–12.49)
 Missing83 (14.9)76 (16.0)7 (8.4)
Pregnancy
 No (%) of women11 (6.6)10 (6.9)1 (4.2)0.6310.60 (0.073–4.905)
  1. CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio
  2. aEstimated by Chi square test for categorical and by Mann–Whitney-U-test for continuous data
  3. bOdds ratios (OR) determined by univariate logistic regression